MAXIMS

D

Da mihifactum, dabo tibi ius. Give me the facts, I will give you the law.

Damnum abs que injuria esse potest. There can be such a thing as damage without injury.

Damnum sentit dominus. The damage falls on the owner. Damnum sine injuria essepotest. There can be damage without any act of injustice.

Dans et retinens nihil dat. One who gives and yet retains (possession) does not give effectually (literally, gives nothing).

Da tua duin tua sunt, post mortem tunc tua non sunt. Give the things which are yours while they are yours; aftr death they are pot yours.

Datur digniori. It is given to the more worthy.

Debet essefinis litium. There ought to be a limit to litigation.

Debet quis furl subjacere ubi delinquit. Any offender should be subjèctto the law of the place where he offends. Debetsua cuique domus esse pcrfugium tutissimum. Every person’s house should be his safest refuge.

Debile fundamentum fallit opus. A weak foundation frustrates the work (built on it).

Debita sequunturpersonam debitoris. Debts follow the person of the debtor. • That is, debts belong to no locality and may be collected wherever the debtor can be found.

Debitor non praesumitür donare. A debtor is not presumed to make a gift.

Debitorum pactionibus creditorum petitio nec tolli nec minuipotest. The creditors’ suit can be neither quashed nor diminished by the contracts of their debtors.

Debitum et contractus sunt nullius loci. Debt and contract belong to no particular place.

Deceptis, non decipientibu.c, jura subveniunt. The laws help persons who have been deceived, not those deceiving.

Decet (tamen)principem servare leges quibus ipse servatus est. It is proper (nonetheless) for the prince to preserve the laws by which he himself is preserved.

Decimae de decimatis solvi non debent. Tithes ought not to be paid from that which is given for tithes.

Decimae de jure divino et canonica institutione pertinent adpersonam. Tithes belong to the parson by divine right and canonical institution.

Decimae non debent solvi ubi non est annua renovatlo, et ex annuatis renovantibus simul semel. Tithes ought not to be paid where there is not an annual renovation, and from annual renovations once only.

Decipi quamfallere est tutius. It is safer to be deceived than to deceive.

Decreta conciliorum non ligant reges nostros. The decrees of councils do not bind our kings.

Defactojus oritur. From fact springs law; law arises from fact.

Deficiente uno sanguine, non pot est esse haeres. For lack of one blood, he cannot be heir. • Coke explains, “The blood of the father and of the mother are but one inheritable blood, and both are necessary to procreation of an heir.” 3 Coke 41.

Defide et officio judicis non recipitur quaestio, sed de sdentia sive sit error juris sivefacti. The good faith and honesty of purpose of a judge cannot be questioned, but his knowledge may be impugned if there is an error either of law or of fact.

Dejure decimarum, originem ducens dejurepatronatus, tunc cognitio spectat at legem civilem, i.e., communem. With regard to the right of tithes, deducing its origin from the right of the patron, then the cognizance of them belongs to the civil law, i.e., common law.

Dejurejudices, defactojuratores, respondent. The judges answer regarding the law, the jury on the facts.

Delegata potestas non potest delegari. A delegated authority cannot be delegated.

Delegatus non potest delegare. A delegate (or deputy) cannot appoint another.

Deliberandum est diu quod statuendum est semel. What is to be resolved once and for all should be long deliberated on.

Delicatus debitor est odiosus in lege. A luxurious debtor is hateful in the law.

Delinquens per iram pro vocatus puniri debet mitius. A wrongdoer provoked by anger ought to be punished less severely. 3 Co. Inst. 55.

De majori et minori non variant jura. Concerning greater and lesser, rights do not vary (or justice does vary).

De minim is non Cu rat lex. The law does not notice or concern itself with trifling matters.

De minimis non curatpraetor. The praetor does not concern himself about trifles.

De molendino de novo erecto non jacetprohibitio. A prohibition does not lie against a newly erected mill.

De morte hominis nulla est cunctatio longa. When the death of a human being is concerned, no delay is long.

Denominatio est a digniore. Denomination is from the more worthy.

Denominatiofieri debet a dignioribus. Denomination should be made from the more worthy.

De nomineproprio non estcuandum cum insubstantia non erretur; quia nomina mutabilia sunt, res autem immobiles. As to the proper name, it is not to be regarded when there is no error in substance; because names are changeable, but things are immutable.

De non apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. The rule is the same respecting things that do not appear and things that do not exist.

De nullo quod est sua natura indivisibile et divisionem non patitur nullam partem habebit vidua, sed satisfaciat ei ad valentiam. A widow shall have no part from that which in its own nature is indivisible and is not susceptible of division; but let (the heir) satisfy her with an equivalent.

De nub tenemento, quod tenetur ad terminum, fit homagii;fit tamen indefidelitatis sacramentum. For no tenement that is held for a term is there the oath of homage, but there is the oath of fealty.

Derivativa potestas non potest esse major primitiva. Power that is derived cannot be greater than that from which it is derived.

Derogatur legi cum pars detrahitur; abrogatur legi, cum pro rsus tollitur. There is derogation from a law when part of it is taken away; there is abrogation of a law when it is abolished entirely.

Designatio justiciariorum est a rege; jurisdictio vero ordinaria a lege. The appointment ofjustices is by the king, but their ordinary jurisdiction is by the law.

Design atio unius est exclusio alterius, et expressumfacit cessare taciturn. The designation of one is the exclusion of the other; and what is expressed prevails over what is implied.

Designatio unius personae est exclusio alterius. The specification of one person is (or implies) the exclusion of another.

De similibus ad similia eadem rationeprocedendum est. From like things to like things we are to proceed by the same rule. • That is, we are allowed to argue from the analogy of cases.

Desimilibus idem est judicium. Concerning like things the judgment is the same.

Destruere, id quodprius structum, etfactumfuit, penitus evertere et diruere. To destroy that which was previously built and made is utterly to overturn and wreck it; to destroy is to overturn and demolish what was built and done before. • This is a maxim cited against any type of revolutionary action.

Deus solus haeredemfacerepotest, non homo. God alone, and not man, can make an heir.

Dies dominicus non est juridicus. Sunday is not a judicial day.

Dies inceptus pro completo habetur. A day begun is held as complete.

Dies incertus pro conditione habetur. An uncertain day is considered as a condition.

Dies interp ellat pro homine. The arrival of the day of payment is a sufficient demand from the person owing. • That is, the due date is as compelling as the creditor at the door. Difficile est ut unus homo vicem duorum sustineat. It is difficult for one man to sustain the position of two.

Difficilem oportet aurem habere ad crimina. One should turn a deaf (or unsympathetic) ear to criminal charges.

Dignitas supponit officium et curam, et non estpartibilis. Dignity supposes office and charge, and is not divisible.

Dilationes in lege sunt odiosae. Delays in law are hateful. Discontinuare nihil aliud quam intermittere, desenescere, interrumpere. Discontinuance is nothing else than to intermit, to abate, to interrupt.

Discretio est discernere per legem quid sit justum. Discretion is to discern through law what is just.

Discretio est scire per legem quid sit justum. Discretion consists in knowing what is just in law.

Discretiojudicis est per leges discernere. The discretion of a judge is to make distinctions according to the laws.

Disparata non debent fungi. Dissimilar things ought not to be joined.

Dispensatio est mali prohibiti provida relaxatio, utilitate seu necessitate pensata; et est de jure domino regi concessa, propter inipossibilita tern praevidendi de omnibus particulari bus. A dispensation is the provident relaxation of a malum prohibitum weighed from utility or necessity; and it is conceded by law to the king on account of the impossibility of foreknowledge concerning all particulars.

Dispensatio est vulnus, quod vulneratjus commune. A dispensation is a wound, because it wounds a common right. Disseisinam satisfacit qui uti non permittit possessorem, vel minus commode, licet omnino non expellat. A person commits disseisin if he does not permit the possessor to enjoy, or makes the possessor’s enjoyment less useful, even if the disseisor does not expel the possessor altogether. Co. Litt. 331.

Dissimilium dissimilis est ratio. Of dissimilars the rule is dissimilar.

Dissimulatione tollitur injuria. Injury is wiped out by reconciliation.

Distinguenda sunt tempora; aliud estfacere, aliud perficere. Times must be distinguished; it is one thing to do a thing, another to complete it.

Distinguenda sunt tempora; distingue tempora, et concordabis leges. Times are to be distinguished; distinguish times, and you will harmonize laws.

Districtio non potest esse, nisi pro certis servitiis. Goods cannot be distrained except for certain services (or servitudes).

Divide et impera, cum radix et vertex imperii in obendientium consensu ratasunt. Divide and govern, since the root and apex of empire are established in the consent of the obedient.

Divinatio, non interpretatio, estquae omnino recedit a litera. It is a guess, not interpretation, that altogether departs from the letter.

Divisibilis eat semper divisibilis. A thing divisible is always divisible.

Divortium dicitur a dive rtendo, quia vir divert itur ab uxore. Divorce is so called from divertendo, because a man is diverted from his wife.

Dolofacit qui petit quod redditurus eat. A person acts with deceit who seeks what he will have to return.

Dolo malopactum se non serva bit. A pact made with evil intent will not be upheld. • This maxim is sometimes written Dolo malo pactum se non servaturum (meaning “an agreement induced by fraud will not stand”).

Dolosus versatur in generalibus. A deceiver deals in generalities.

Dolum ex indiciis perspicuis probari convenit. Fraud should be proved by clear proofs.

Dolus auctoris non nocet successori. The fraud of a predecessor does not prejudice the successor.

Dolus circuitu non purgatur. Fraud is not purged by circuity.

Dolus est machinatlo, cum aliud dissimulat aliud agit. Deceit is an artifice, since it pretends one thing and does another.

Dolus etfraus nemini patrocinentur (patrocinari debent). Deceit and fraud should excuse or benefit no one (they themselves require some excuse).

Dolus etfraus una in parte sanari debent. Deceit and fraud should always be remedied.

Dolus latet in generalibus. Fraud lurks in generalities. • This maxim is also sometimes written Dolus versatur in generalibus (meaning “fraud deals in generalities”). Doluspraesumitur contra versantem in illicito. Fraud is presumed against one engaged in an illegal act or transaction.

Dominium non potest esse inpendenti. The right of property cannot be in abeyance.

Dorninus aliquando non potest alienare. An owner sometimes has no power to alienate or dispose of a property (as when it is entailed).

Dominus capitalis loco haeredis habetur, quoties per defectum vel delictum extinguitur sanguis sui tenentis. The supreme lord takes the place of the heir, as often as the blood of the tenant is extinct through deficiency or crime.

Dominus non maritabitpupillum nisi semel. A lord cannot give a ward in marriage but once.

Dominus omnium in regno terrarum rex ha bend us; et ab eo omnes tenent ita tamen, Ut suum cuique sit. The king is considered master of all lands in the kingdom, and all (subjects) hold from him, so that each has his own.

Dominus rex nullum haberepotestparem, multo minus superiorem. The king cannot have an equal, much less a superior.

Domum suam unicuique reficere licet, dum non officia fin- Vito alteri in quo jus non habet. It is lawful for everyone to repair his own house, provided he does not cause obstruction to another without his consent, over whom he has no right.

Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium. Everyone’s house is his safest refuge.

Domus tutissimurn cuique ref ugiurn atque receptaculum sit. Everyone’s house should be his safest refuge and shelter.

Dona clandestina sunt sempersuspiciosa. Clandestine gifts are always suspicious.

Donari videtur quod nullojure cogente, conceditur. That is considered to be given which is granted without the obligation of any law.

Donatio non praesumitur. A gift is not presumed.

Donationum aliaperfecta, alia incepta etnonperfecta; ut si donatio lectafuit et concessa, ac traditio nondumfuent subsecuta. Some gifts are perfect, others incipient and not perfect; for example, if a gift were read and agreed to, but delivery had not then followed.

Donatio perficiturpossessione accipientis. A gift is rendered complete by the possession of the receiver.

Donatioprincipis intelligitursinepraejudicio tertii. A gift of the prince is understood without prejudice to a third party.

Donatio quaelibet ex vi legis sortitur effectum. A donation of any sort obtains its effect by force of the law.

Donator nun quam desinitpossidere ante quam donatarius incipiatpossidere. A donor never ceases to have possession until the donee obtains possession.

Dormiunt aliquando leges, nun quam moriuntur. Laws sometimes sleep but never die.

Dos de dote peti non debet. Dower ought not to b sought from dower.

Dos rationabilis vel legititna est cujuslibet mulieris de quocunque tenemento tertia pars omnium terrarum et tenementorum, quae vir suus tenuit in dominio suo ut de feodo, etc. Reasonable or legitimate dower belongs to every woman of a third part of all the lands and tenements of which her husband was seised in his demesne, as of fee, etc. Doti lexfavet; praemiurn pudoris est, ideo parcatur. The law favors dower; it is the reward of chastity; therefore let it be preserved.

Do Ut des. I give that you may give.

Do utfacias. I give that you may do.

Droit ne done pluis que soit demaunde. The law gives no more than is demanded.

Droit ne poet pus morier. Right cannot die.

Duas uxores eodem tempore habere non licet. It is not lawful to have two wives at one time.

Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. Two cannot possess one thing each in entirety.

Duorum in solidum dominium velpossessio esse non potest. Ownership or possession in entirety cannot belong to two persons.

Duo sunt instrumenta ad omnes res aut confirmandas aut &npugnandas, ratio et auctoritas. There are two instruments for confirming or impugning everything: reason and authority.

Duplex placitum non admittitur. A double plea is not admissible. • That is, a defendant cannot offer two separate pleas on the same issue.

Duplicationempossibilitatis lex non patitur. The law does not allow a duplication of possibility.

Dura lex sed lex. Hard law, but law.

Durum est per divinationem a verbis recedere. It is harsh (or oppressive) to depart from the words by conjecture.

E

Eadem causa diversis rationibus coram judicibus ecciesiasticis etsecularibus ventilatur. The same cause is argued on different principles before ecclesiastical and secular judges.

Eadem est ratio, eadem est lex. (If) the reason is the same, the law is the same.

Eadern mens praesumitur regis quae est juris et quae esse debet, praesertim in dubiis. The mind of the sovereign is presumed to be the same as that of the law, and the same as what it ought to be, especially in ambiguous matters.

Ea est accipienda interpretatio quae vitio caret. That interpretation is to be received that is free from fault.

Earn domurn unicuique nostrum debere existimari, ubi quisque sedes et tabulas ha beret suarumque rerum constitutionemfecisset. (It is decided that) for each of us it should be considered his home where each has his residence and records and has set up the management of his affairs. Dig. 50.16.203.

Ea quae commendandi causa in venditionibus dicuntur, si palam appareant venditorem non obligant. Those things that, by way of commendation, are stated at sales, if they are openly apparent, do not bind the seller.

Ea quac dan irnpossibilia sunt, vel quae in rerum natura non sunt, pro non adj ectis ha be ntur. Those things that cannot be given, or that are not in the nature of things, are considered as not added (as no part of the agreement).

Eu quae in curia nostra rite acta sunt debitae executioni demandari debent. Those things that are properly transacted in our court ought to be committed to a due execution.

Ea quae raro accidunt non ternere in agendis negotiis cornputantur. Those things that rarely happen are not to be taken into account in the transaction of business, without sufficient reason.

Eu sola deportationis sententia aufrrt quae adfiscum perveniret. A sentence of deportation only deprives the deportee of those things which come into the treasury. Dig. 50.17.97.

Ecciesia ecclesiae decima solvere non debet. A church should not pay tithes to a church. 

Ecciesia est dornus mansionalis omnipotentis Dei. The church is the mansion house of the omnipotent God.

Ecciesia est infra aeta tern et in custodia domini regis, qui teneturjura et haereditates ejusdem manu tenere et defendere. The church is underage and in the custody of the king, who is bound to uphold and defend its rights and inheritances.

Ecciesla fungitur vice minoris; meliorem conditionem suamfacere potest, deteriorern nequaquam. The church enjoys the privilege of a minor; it can make its own condition better but not worse.

Eccleslae magisfavendum est quam personae. The church is to be more favored than the parson (or an individual).

Ecciesia meliorari non deteriorari potet. A church can (lawfully) be improved but not made worse.

Ecciesia non moritur. The church does not die.

Edicta magi stratum, constitutio principis. The ordinance of the magistracy (or civil government) is the constitution (or decree) of the Emperor.

Effectus sequitur causam. The effect follows the cause.

El incumbitprobatio qui dicit, non qui negat. The burden of the proof rests on the person who affirms, not the one who denies.

El nihil turpe, cui nihilsatis. Nothing is immoral to the person to whom nothing is enough.

Eisdern modis dissolvitur obligatio quae nascitur ex contractu, vel quasi, quibus contrahitur. An obligation that arises from a contract or quasi contract is dissolved in the same ways in which it is contracted.

Ejus est interpretari cujus est condere. It is that person’s to interpret whose it is to enact.

Ejus est nolle, qui pot est velle. A person who can will (exercise volition) has a right to refuse to will (withhold consent).

Ejus est non nolle qui potest velle. A person may consent tacitly who can consent expressly.

Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum. He who has the dominion or advantage has the risk.

Ejus nulla culpa est cui parere necesse sit. No guilt attaches to a person who is compelled to obey.

Electa una via, non datur recursus ad alteram. When one way has been chosen, no recourse is given to another.

Electio est interna libera et spontanea separatio unius rd ab alia, sine compuLsione, consistens in animo et volunfate. Choice is an internal, free, and spontaneous separation of one thing from anotheii without compulsion, consisting in intention and will.

Elect ionesfiant rite et libere sine interruptione aliqua. Let choices be made in due form and freely, without any interruption.

Electio semelfacta, etplacitum testatum, non patitur regressum. A choice once made, and a plea witnessed (or intent shown), allows no going back.

Electio semelfacta non patitur regressum. An election once made cannot be recalled.

Emptio et venditio contrahitur simul atque de pretio convenerit, quamvis nondurn pretium numeratum sit acne arra quidem data fuerit. The buying and selling is complete as soon as the price is agreed upon, though the price has not yet been paid nor any earnest given. Just. Inst. 3.23.

Emptor emit quarn minimo potest; venditor vendit quam maximopotest. The buyer buys for as little as possible; the vendor sells for as much as possible.

En eschange ii covient que les estates soient egales. In an exchange it is desirable that the estates be equal.

Enitia pars semper praeferenda est propter privilegium aetatis. The part of the elder sister is always to be preferred on account of the privilege of age.

Enumeratio infirmat regulam in casibus non enumeratis. Enumeration disaffirms the rule in cases not enumerated.

Enumeratio unius est exclusio alterius. Specification of one thing is an exdusion of the other.

Eodem ligamine quo ligatum est dissolvitur. An obligation is dissolved by the same bond by which it is contracted.

Eodem modo quo oritur, eodem modo dissolvitur. It is discharged in the same way as it is created.

Eodem modo quo quid constituitur, dissolvitur. In the same way as anything is constituted, it is dissolved (or destroyed)

Eodem modo quo quid constituitur, eodem modo destruifur. In the same way in which something is constituted, it may be destroyed.

Ephemeris annua pars legis Anglicanae. An annual diary is part of the English law (i.e., the law that takes notice of the annual calendar).

Episcopus alterius mandato quam regis non ten etur obtemperare. A bishop need not obey any mandate save the king’s.

Equitas sequitur legem. Equity follows the law.

Errores ad sua principia referre est refellere. To refer errors to their origin is to refute them.

Errores scribentis nocere non debent. The mistakes of the scribe (or copyist) ought to do no harm.

Error fucatus nuda veritate in multis estprobabilior; et saepenurnero rationibus vincit veritatem error. Error artfully colored is in many instances more probable than naked truth; and frequently error conquers truth by argumentation.

Error juris nocet. An error of law injures.

Error nominis nun quam nocet, side identitate rei constat. Mistake in the name never injures if the identity of the thing is certain.

Error placitandi acquit atem non tollit. An error in the plea does not take away equity.

Error qui non resistitur approbatur. An error that is not resisted is approved.

Error scribentis nocere non debet. The error of a scribe (or copyist) ought not to injure.

Erubescit lexfihios castigareparentes. The law blushes when children correct their parents.

Est aliquid quod non oportet etiam si licet; quic quid vero non licet certe non oportet. There is that which is not proper, even though permitted; but whatever is not permitted is certainly not proper.

Est autem juspublicum etprivatum quod cx naturalibus praeceptis autgentiurn aut civilibus est collectum, et quod injure scripto jus appellatur, id in legeAngliae rectum esse dicitur. Public and private law is that which is collected either from natural precepts of the (law of) nations or from civil precepts; and that which in the civil law is called jus is said in the law of England to be right. Co. Litt. 558.

Est autem vis legem sirnulans. Violence may also put on the mask of law.

Est boni judicis ampliare jurisdictionem. It is the role of a good judge to extend the jurisdiction.

Est boni judicis ampliare just itiam, non jurisdictionem. It is the role of a good judge to extend justice, not to enlarge jurisdiction.

Est ipsorum legislatorum tan quam viva vox. The voice of the legislators themselves is like a living voice. • That is, the provisions of a statute are to be understood and interpreted as practical rules for real circumstances. Coke adds, Rebus et non verbis legem imponimus. 

Estoveria sunt ardendi, arandi, cons truendi et claudendi. Estovers (tenants’ rights to material at hand) are for burning, plowing, building, and fencing.

Est pactio duorurn pluriumque in idem placitum consensus. A paction (pactio, or bargain) is the consent of two or more in the same agreement (piacitum, as what is pleasing to the parties).

Est quiddarn perfectius in rebus licitis. There is something more perfect in things that are permitted.

Est un maxime en nostre ley “parois font pie.” It is a maxim in our law: “Words make the plea.”

Et si cut ad quaestiónem juris non respondent juratores, sedjudices; sic ad quaestionemfacti non respondentjudices, sed juratores. Just as a question of law is not answered by the jurors but the judges, so too a question of fact is not answered by judges but jurors.

Eum qui nocentem infamat, non est aequum et bonum oh earn rem condemnari; delicta enim nocentium nota esse oportet et expedit. It is not just and proper that one who speaks ill of a bad person should be condemned on that account; for it is fitting and expedient that the wrongdoings of bad people should be known.

Eventus est qui ex causa sequitur; et dicitur eventus quia ex causis evenit. An event is what follows from a cause; and is called an event, because it results from causes.

Eventus varios res nova semper ha bet. A novel matter always produces various results.

Ex abusu non arguitur ad usum. No argument can be drawn from the abuse (of a thing) against its use.

Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio. The best interpretation is made from what precedes and what follows.

Excambiurn naturaliter vult in se warrantium. An exchange in itself naturally intends (or creates) a wrranty.

Excambium non potest esse rerum diversae qualitatis; neque excanthiurn inter tres partes datur. An exchange cannot be of things of a different quality; nor is it granted among three parties.

Exceptio ejus rei cujuspetitur dissolutlo nulia est. There is no exception based on the very matter for which a solution is being sought.

Exceptio est strictissimae applicationis. An exception is of the strictest application.

Exceptiofalsi est omnium uitima. The exception for falsehood is last of all.

Exceptiofirmat regulam in casibus non exceptis. An exception affirms the rule in cases not excepted.

Exceptiofirmat regulam in contrarium. An exception affirms a rule to the contrary.

Exceptio nulia est versus actionem quae exceptionem perimit. There is no exception against an action that extinguishes the exception.

Exceptio pro bat regulam de rebus non exceptis. An exception proves a rule concerning things not excepted.

Exceptio quaefirmat legem exponit legern. An exception that confirms the law expounds the law.

Exceptio quo que regulam declarat. The exception also declares the rule.

Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est. An exception is always to be put last.

Excessivum injure repro batur. Excessus in re qualibetjure rep robatur communi. The excessive in law is rejected. Excess in anything is rejected in common law.

Excessus injure rep robatur. Excess in law is condemned. Excessus in re qualibet jute reprobatur communi. Excess in anything at all is condemned by common law.

Excommunicato interdicitur omnis actus legitimus, ita quod agere non potest, nec aliquem conven ire; licet ipse ab aliispossit conveniri. Every legal act is forbidden an excommunicated person, so that he cannot act, nor sue any person; but he may be sued by others.

Excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus. That excuses or extenuates a wrong in capital causes which does not have the same effect in civil suits.

Excusatio non petita accusatio manifesta fit. An excuse that is not required is an obvious accusation (i.e., he who makes excuse before he is accused manifests his own guilt).

Excusatur quis quod clameum non apposuerit, ut si toto tempore litigiifuit ultra mare quacunque occasione. One who has not brought his claim is excused if, during the whole period in which it ought to have been brought, he was beyond the sea for any reason.

Ex delicto non ex supplicio emergit infamia. Infamy arises from the crime, not from the punishment.

Ex diuturnitate temporis omniapraesumuntursolenniter esse acta. From length of time, all things are presumed to have been done in due form.

Ex dolo malo non oritur actio. An action does not arise from a fraud.

Executio est executio juris secundum judicium. Execution is the execution of the law according to the judgment.

Executio estfinis etfructus legis. Execution of the law is its end and fruition.

Executiojuris non ha bet injuriam. The execution of the law causes no injury.

Executio legis non ha bet injuriam. Execution of the law cannot work an injury.

Exempia illustrant, non restringunt, legem. Examples illustrate but do not narrow the scope of a rule of law.

Exempla non restringunt regulam, sed loquuntur de casibus crebriori bus. Examples do not restrict the rule; they speak of cases that more frequently occur.

Exempio perniciosum est ut ei scripturae credatur qua unus quisquam sibi adnotationepropria debito rem constituit. It a ruinous, as a precedent, if credit is given to that writing whereby anyone, by his own note (or memorandum) makes a debtor (of another). Bi. 3.23.369, from Just. Codex 4.19.7.

Exfactojus oritur. The law arises out of the fact.

Exfrequenti delicto augeturpoena. Punishment increases with repeated offense. 2 Co. Inst. 479.

Exilium estpatriaeprivatio, natalis soil mutatio, legum nativarurn am issio. Exile is a privation of country, a change of native soil, a loss of native laws.

Ex iniuria ius non oritur. A right does not arise from wrongdoing.

Exitus acta probat; finis, non pugna, coronat. The outcome proves (or justifies) the deeds; the conclusion, not the contest, crowns the victor.

Exjudiciorurnpublicorum admissis, non alias transeunt adversus haeredespoenae bonorumademptionis quam si us contestata etcondemnatiofueritse,cuta; excepto majestatisjudicio. On account of admissions made at public trials, the punishment of a confiscation of goods or property does not otherwise pass against the heirs than if a contested suit and condemnation followed; excepting in the case of high treason.

Ex rnalcficio non oritur contractus. A contract does not arise out of an illegal act.

Ex malls moribus bouae leges natae sunt. Good laws are born from evil morals.

Ex niultitudine signorum colligitur identitas vera. From a great number of signs true identity is ascertained.

Ex nihilo nihilfit. From nothing nothing comes.

Ex non scripto jus venit quod USUS camprobavit. Unwritten law is that which custom has sanctioned.

Ex nuda submissione non oritur actio. From a “bare” (or naked) submission (e.g., to nonbinding arbitration) no action can arise.

Ex nudopacto non oritur actio. No action arises on a contract without a consideration.

Expacto illicito non oritur actio. From an illicit contract no action arises.

Expaucisplurima concipit ingenium. From a few words or hints the understanding conceives many things.

Expedit reipublicae ne sua re quis male utatur. It is to the advantage of the state that a person should not make bad use of his own property.

Expeditreipublicae ut sitfinis litium. It is to the advantage of the state that there should be a limit to litigation.

Experientia per varios actus legem facit. Experience through various acts makes law.

Expositio quae ex visceribus causae nascitur, est aptissima etfortissima in lege. An exposition that springs from the vitals of a cause is the fittest and most powerful in law.

Expraecedentibus et consequentilius est optima interpretatio. The best interpretation takes account of what precedes and follows.

Expressa nocent, non expressa non nocent. What is expressed does injury, that which is not expressed does not injure. 

Expressa non prosunt quae non expressa proderunt. There is no benefit in expressing what will benefit when unexpressed.

Expressio eorzsm quae tacite insunt nihil opera tur. The expression of those things that are tacitly implied is of no consequence.

Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. The expression of one thing is the exclusion of another. • Also termed Inciusio unius est exclusio alterius or enumeratio unius est exclusb aiterius.

Expressumfacit cessare taciturn. Something expressed riullifies what is unexpressed.

Expressum servitium regat vel declaret taciturn. Let service expressed rule or declare what is silent.

Ex procedentibus et consequentibus optima fit interpretatio. The best interpretation is made from things proceeding and following (i.e., the context).

Ex qua persona quis lucrum capit, ejusfactum praestare debet. From whatever calling (or role, persona) anyone derives profit, he ought to discharge the duty of that calling.

Exterus non habet terras. An alien holds no lands.

Extincto subjecto, tollitur adjunctum. When the substance is gone, the adjunct disappears.

Extinguitur obligatio quae rite constiterit si ifl eum casum incident a quo incipere non potuit. An obligation that has been created in due form isextinguished if it falls into that state from which it could not have arisen.

Extortio est crimen quando quis colore offi cii extorquet quod non est debitum, vel supra debitum, vel ante ternpus quad est debitum. Extortion is a crime when, by color of office, any person extorts what is not due, or more than due, or before the time when it is due.

Ex tota materia ernergat resolutlo. The construction or explanation should arise out of the whole subject matter.

Extra legern positus est civiliter mortuus. An outlaw is dead as a citizen.

Extraneus est subditus qui extra terram, i.e. potestam regis, natus est. A foreigner is a subject who is born out of the territory — that is, the jurisdiction — of the king.

Extra territoriurn jus dicenti impune non paretur. One who gives a judgment outside his jurisdidion is disobeyed with impunity. • There is no punishment for disobeying. Dig. 2.1.20.

Extra territonium jus dicenti non paretur impune. One who gives a judgment outside his jurisdiction is not obeyed with impunity. • Anyone who executes such a judgment may be punished. 10 Coke 77.

Extremapotiuspati quam turpiafacere. Extremities are rather to be suffered than to do disgraceful (infamous or scandalous) things.

Extrem is pro batis praesurnuntur media. Extremes having been proved, intermediate things are presumed.

Ex turpi causa non oritur actio. No action arises out of a wrongful consideration.

Ex turpi con tractu non oritur actio. No action arises from a wrongful contract.

F

Facilis est lapsusjuventutis. Easy is the failing of youth (i.e., young people are likely to make mistakes).

Facinus quos inquinat aequat. Guilt makes equal those whom it stains.

Facio Ut des. I do that you may give.

Facio utfacias. I do that you may do.

Facta suntpotentiora verbis. Deeds (or facts) are more powerful than words.

Facta tenent multa quaefieri prohibentur. Deeds contain many things that are prohibited to be done.

Facturn a judice quod ad ejus officium non spectat, non ratum est. A judge’s act that does not pertain to his office is of no force. 

Factum cuique suurn, non adversario, nocere debet. Anyone’s act should injure himself, not his adversary.

Factum infectumfieri nequit. What is done cannot be undone.

Factum negantis nullaprobatio. No proof is incumbent on a person who denies a fact.

Factum non dicitur quod non perseverat. That is not said to be done which does not last.

Factum unius alteri nocere non debet. The deed of one should not hurt the other.

Facturi quod ad justitiam pertinet secundum legem, et consuetudinem Angliae. (One is bound) to do justice according to the law and custom of England. • This was onfe a part of judicial oaths.

Facultasprobationum non estangustanda. The capability of offering proofs is not to be narrowed.

Falsa causa non nocet. A false motive does no injury.. Generally, an erroneous motive does not invalidate.

Falsa dernonstratione lega turn non perirni. A legacy is not destroyed by an incorrect description. • This maxim is sometimes written Falsa demonstratione legaturn non perimitur (same sense).

Falsa dernonstratio non nocet, cum de corpore (persona) constat. False description does not injure or vitiate, provided the thing or person intended has once been sufficiently described. • Mere false description does not make an instrument inoperative.

Falsa grammatica non vitiat chartarn. False grammar does not vitiate a charter.

Falsa grammatica non vitiat concessionem. False or bad grammar does not vitiate a grant. • Neither false Latin nor false English will make a deed void when the intent of the parties plainly appears.

Falsa orthographia sivefalsa grammatica non vitiat concessionem. Error in spelling or grammar does not vitiate a grant.

Falsus in uno,falsus in omnibus. False in one thing, false in everything.

Fama est constans virorum bonorum de re aliqua opinio. Fame is the constant opinion of good men concerning a thing.

Fama, fides, et oculus non patiuntur ludurn. Reputation, plighted faith, and eyesight do not endure deceit.

Fama, quae suspicionem inducit, oriri debet apud bonos etgraves, non quidem malevolosetmaledicos, sedprovidas etfide dignaspersonas, non semel sedsaepiut quia clamor minuit et defamatio manifestat. Report, which induces suspicion, ought to arise from good and grave men; not, indeed, from malevolent and malicious men, but from cautious and credible persons; not only once, but frequently, for clamor diminishes, and defamation manifests.

Fateturfacinus qul judiciumfugit. A person who flees judgment confesses guilt.

Fatuus, apud jurisconsultos nostros, accipitur pro non compos mentis; etfatuus dicitur, qui omnino desipit. “Fatuous,” among our jurisconsults, is applied to a man not of sound mind; one is also called “fatuous” who is altogether foolish.

Fatuuspraesumitur qui inproprio nomine errat. A person is presumed to be incompetent who makes a mistake in his own name (that is, does not know his own name). 

Favorabilia in lege suntfiscus, dos, vita, libertas. The treasury, dower, life, and liberty are things favored in law.

Favorabiliores rel potius quam actores habentur. Defendants are rather to be favored than plaintiffs.

Favorabiliores sunt executiones aliis processibus quibuscunque. Executions are preferred to all other processes whatever.

Favores ampliandi sunt; odia restringenda. Favorable inclinations are to be enlarged; animosities restrained.

Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas. Happy is he who could apprehend the causes of things.

Felonia, ex vi termini, sign ificat quodlibet cap itale crimen felleo animo perpetratum. Felony, by force of the term, signifies any capital crime perpetrated with a malicious intent.

Felonia implicatur in quolibetproditlone. Felony is implied in every treason.

Feodum est quod quis tenet ex quacunque causa, sive sit tenemen turn sive redditus. A fee is that which anyone holds from whatever cause, whether tenement or rent.

Feodum simplex quiafeodum idem est quod haereditas, et simplex idem estquod legituurn vel purum; etsicfeodum simplex idem est quod haereditas legitima vel haereditaspura. “Fee simple” is so called because fee is the same as inheritance and simple is the same as lawful or pure; and thus fee simple is the same as a lawful inheritance or a pure inheritance.

Fera vagans est nullius in rebus. A wandering beast belongs to no one.

Fere secundumpromissorem interpretamur. We generally interpret in favor of the promisor.

Festinatiojustitiae est noverca lnfortunii. The hurrying of justice is the stepmother of misfortune.

Feuda ad instarpatrimoniorum sunt redacta. Lands held in feudal tenure are reduced to the character of a patrimony or succession.

Fiat jus, ruat justitia. Let law prevail, though justice fail. Fiat justitiapereat mundus. Let justice be done though the world perish.

Fiat justitia, ruat caelum. Let justice be done though the heavens fall. • The word caelum sometimes appears coelum, but the form caelurn is considered better Latin.

Fiat proutfieri consuevit, nil tetnere novandum. Let it be done as it is accustomed to be done; let no innovation be made rashly.

Fictio cedit veritati;fictiojuris non est ubi veritas. Fiction yields to truth; where the truth appears, there is no fiction of law.

Fictio est contra veritatem, sed pro veritate habetun. Fiction is contrary to the truth, but it is regarded as truth.

Fictiojuris non est ubi veritas. Where truth is, fiction of law does not exist.

Fictio legis inique operatur alicui damnum vel injuriarn. Fiction of law works unjustly if it works loss or injury to anyone.

Fictio legis neminem laedit. A fiction of law injures no one. Fides est obligatlo conscientiae alicuj us ad intentionem alterius. Faith is an obligation of conscience of one to the will of another.

Fides servanda est. Faith must be observed. • An agent must not violate the confidence reposed in him or her.

Fides servanda est; simplicitas furls gentium praevaleat. Faith is to be preserved; the simplicity of the law of nations should prevail.

Fieri non debet, sedfactum valet. It ought not to be done, but if done it is valid.

Filiatio non potest pro ban. Filiation cannot be proved.. That is, the husband is presumed to be the father of a child born during coverture.

Filius est nomen naturae, sed haeres nomen juris. “Son” is a name of nature, but “heir” a name of law.

Filius in utero matnis est pars viscerum matris. A son in the mother’s womb is part of the mother’á vitals.

Finis estamicabilis compositio etfinalis crmcordia ex concensu et concordia domini regis i’d justiciarum. A fine is an amicable settlement and decisive agreement by consent and agreement of our lord, the king, or his justices.

Finisfinem litibus imponit. A fine puts an end to litigation. Finis rei attendendus est. The end of a thing is to be attended to.

Finis unius diel estpnincipium alterius. The end of one day is the beginning of another.

Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis. The operation of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man.

Fitfabricandofaber. Building makes the builder. • The law presumes that a workman becomes an expert by a long continued exercise of his particular vocation.

Flumina etportuspublica sunt, ideoquef uspiscandi omnibus commune est. Rivers and ports are public; and therefore the right of fishing is common to all.

Foeminae ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae sunt. Women are excluded from all civil and public charges or offices.

Foeniinae non sunt capaces depublicis officiis. Women are not qualified for public offices.

Forma dat esse. Form gives being.

Forma legalisforma essentialis. Legal form is essential form.

Forma non observata, infertur adnuilatio actus. When form is not observed, a nullity of the act is inferred.

Forstellanius est pauperum depressor, et totius comm unitatis etpatniaepubiicus inimicus. A forestaller is an oppressor of the poor, and a public enemy of the whole community and the country.

Fortior est custodia legis quam hominis. The custody of the law is stronger than that of man.

Fortior et potent ior est dispositio legis quam hominis. The disposition of the law is stronger and more powerful than that of man.

Fortior ratio vincit. The stronger reason prevails. Fractionem diei non recipit lex. The law does not regard a fraction of a day.

Fraterfratri uterino non succedit in haereditate paterna. A brother shall not succeed a uterine brother in the paternal inheritance.

Fraudis interpretatio semper injure clviii, non ex eventu dumtaxat, sed ex consilio quo que desideratur. In civil law the interpretation of fraud is sought not only from the outcome but also from the intention. Dig. 50.17.79. Fraus aequitati praejudicat. Fraud is prejudicial to equity.

Fraus auctoris non nocetsuccessori. The fraud of the author (or ancestor) does not injure his successor.

Fraus enim astningit, non dissolvitperjurium. Fraud, in fact, does not undo but aggravates perjury. Cicero, De Officiis 3.113.

Fraus est celarefraudem. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud.

Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed.

Fraus et dolus nemini pat rocinari debent. Fraud and deceit should excuse no one.

Fraus et jus nun quam cohabitant. Fraud and justice never dwell together.

Fraus latet in generalibus. Fraud lies hidden in general expressions.

Fraus legibus invisissima. Fraud is most odious to law.

Fraus mereturfraudem. Fraud deserves fraud.

Fraus omnia corrumpit. Fraud corrupts all.

Frequentia actus muitum operatur. The frequency of an act has much effect. • Continual usage establishes a right. Fructus augent haereditatem. Fruits enhance an inheritance.

Fructuspendentesparsfrndi videntur. Hanging fruits are considered part of the parcel of land.

Fructus pendentes pars fundi videntur, sed non fructus percepti. Hanging fruits make part of the realty, but gathered fruits form no part of it. Dig. 6.1.44.

Fructus perceptos villae non esse constat. It is agreed that gathered fruits are not a part of the farm.

Frumenta quae sata sunt solo cedere inteiliguntur. Grain that has been sown is understood to belong to the soil.

Frustra agit qui judicium prose qui nequit cum effectu. A person sues in vain who cannot prosecute his judgment with effect.

Frustra estpotentia quae nun quam venit in actum. Power that never comes to be exercised is useless.

Fnustra expectatun evcntus cujus effectus nuflus sequitur. An event is vainly awaited from which no effect follows. Frustraferuntur leges nisi subditis et obedientibus. Laws are made to no purpose except for those who are subject and obedient.

Frustrafitperplura quodfieni potestperpauciora. That is done vainly through many measures if it can be accomplished through fewer.

Frustna legis auxibum quaenit qui in iegem committit. Vainly does a person who offends against the law seek the help of the law.

Frustra petis quod mox es rest iturus. Vainly you seek what you are soon to restore.

Frustrapetis quod statim alteri reddere cogeris. Vainly you seek what you will immediately be compelled to give back to another.

Frustra pro batur quodprobatum non relevat. It is useless to prove what if proved would not aid the matter in question.

Frustra (vana) estpotentia quae nun quam venit in actum. Power that never comes into action is useless (or vain).

Funiosi nufla voluntas est. An insane person has no will.

Furiosus absentis loco est. An insane person is considered as absent.

Furiosus nullurn negotium contrahere (ge rere) pot est (quia non intelligit quod agit). An insane person cannot make a contract (because he does not understand what he is doing).

Furiosus solofurorepunitur. An insane person is punished by insanity alone.

Furiosus stipulari non potest nec aliquod negotium agere, qui non intelligit quid agit. An insane person who knows not what he does cannot make a bargain or transact any business.

Furor contrahi matrimonium non sinit, qula consensu opus est. Insanity prevents marriage from being Contracted, because consent is needed.

Furtum est contrectatio rei alienaefraudulenta, cum animofurandi, invito jib domino cujus res iliafuerat. Theft is the fraudulent handling of another’s property, with an intention of stealing, against the will of the proprietor, whose property it had been.

Furtum non est ubi initium ha bet detentionis per dorniniurn rei. There is not theft where the holder has a beginning of detention (began holding the object) through ownership of the thing.