MAXIMS

G

Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum. A general expression is to be construed generally.

Generale dictum generaliter est interpretandum: generalia verba sunt generaliter intelligenda. A general statement is to be construed generally: general words are to be understood generally.

Generale nihil certi implicat. A general expression implies nothing certain.

Generale tantum valet in generalibus quantum singulare in singulis. What is general has as much validity among things general as what is particular does among things particular.

Generaliapraecedunt, specialia sequuntur. Things general precede; things special follow.

Generalia specialibus non derogant. Things general do not restrict (or detract from) things special.

Generalia suntpraeponenda singulari bus. General things are to be put before particular things.

Generalia verba sunt general iter intelligenda. General words are to be understood in a general sense.

Generalibus specialia derogant. Things special restrict things general.

Generalis clausula non porrigitur ad ea quae antea specialiter sunt comprehensa. A general clause does not extend to those things that have been previously provided for specifically.

Generalis gratia proditionern et homicidium non excipit poena. General favor does not exempt treason and homicide from punishment.

Generalis regulageneraliter est intelligenda. A general rule is to be understood generally.

Glossa viperina est quae corrodit viscera textus. It is a poisonous gloss that gnaws away the vitals of the text.

Grammaticafalsa non vitiat chartam. False grammar does not vitiate a deed.

Gravioris injuriae species est quae scripta fit quia diutius in conspectus hominum perseverat. Vocis enim facile obliviscimur, at litera scripta manet; et per manus multorum longe, lateque vagatur. The type of injury that is done in writing is more serious, because it remains longer in public view. For we easily forget the voice (or utterance), but the written letter remains, and it passes through the hands of many, far and wide.

Gravius est divinarn quam temporalem laedere majestatern. It is more serious to hurt divine than temporal majesty.

H

Habemus optimum testem, confitentem reum. We have the best witness, a confessing defendant.

Habendum in charta vel auget vel restringit, sed non novum inducit. The habendum clause in a deed either increases or restricts, but does not introduce any new provision.

Habet aliquid ex iniquo ornne magnum exemplum, quod contra singubos utilitate publica rependitur. There is something of injustice in every great example of punishment, which is exacted against individuals for public benefit. Tacitus Annales 14.44.

Haederes successoresque sul cuique liberi, et nullum testamentutn; si liberi non sunt, proxirnusgradus inpossessione, fratres, patrii, avunculi. The children of every man are his heirs and successors, and there is no will; if there are no children, next in order of succession are brothers, paternal uncles, and maternal uncles. Tacitus, Germania 20 Haeredem Deusfacit, non homo. God, and not man, makes the heir.

Haeredem ejusdem potestatis fur isque esse cujusfuit defunctus, constat. It is agreed that an heir has the same powers and rights as the deceased. Dig. 50.17.59.

Haeredifavetur. An heir is favored.

Haeredi magisparcendum est. Much is to be forgiven (and tolerated) in an heir.

Haeredipetae suo propin quo vel ext raneo, pericuboso sane custodi, nullus committatur. Let no ward be entrusted to the next heir in succession, whether his own relation or a stranger, as the next heir is surely a dangerous guardian. Co. Litt. 88b.

Haereditas est successio in universum jus quod defunctus habuerat. Inheritance is the succession to every right possessed by the late possessor.

Haereditas ex dimidio sanguine non datur. Inheritance from half blood is not granted.

Haeredltas nihil aliud est quam successio in universum jus, quod defunctus habuerat. The right of inheritance is nothing other than the faculty of succeeding to all the rights of the deceased.

Haereditas nun quam ascendit. An inheritance never ascends.

Haeredum appellatione veniunt haeredes haeredum in infinitum. By the title of heirs, come the heirs of heirs to infinity.

Haeres est alter ipse, etfihius est pars patris. An heir is another self, and a son is a part of the father.

Haeres est aut jure proprietatis aut jure representation is. A person is an heir by either right of property or right of representation.

Haeres est eadem persona cum antecessore. The heir is the same person as the ancestor.

Haeres est nomen collectivum. “Heir” is a collective noun. Hacres est nomenjuris, fihius est nomen naturae. “Heir” is a term of law; “son” is one of nature.

Haeres est pars antecessoris. An heir is a part of the ancestor.

Haeres haeredis mel est meus haeres. The heir of my heir is myheir.

Haeres legitimus est quem nuptiae demonst rant. The lawful heir is the one whom the marriage indicates (i.e., who is born in wedlock).

Haeres minor uno et viginti annis non respondebit, nisi in casu dotis. An heir under 21 years of age is not answerable, except in the matter of the dower.

Hoc servabitur quod initio convenit. That shall be preserved which is useful in the beginning.

Hornagium, non per procuratores nec per literasfieri po- tuit, sed in proprid persona tarn domini quam tenentis capi debit etfieri. Homage cannot be done by proxy, nor by letters, but must be accepted and rendered by lord and tenant in person.

Home.neserapunypursuerdes briefesen courtle roy, soit ii a droit on a tort. A person shall not be punished for suing out writs in the king’s court, whether the person is right or wrong.

Homicidium vel horn mis coedium, est hominis occisio ab horninefacta. Homicide or “manslaying” is the killing of a human being by a human being.

Hominum causa jus constituturn est. Law was established for the benefit of humankind.

Homo et capax et incapax esse potest in diversis temporibus. A person may be capable and incapable at different times. • This maxim is sometimes written Homo potest esse ha bills et inhabilis diversis tempori bus (same sense).

Horno potest esse habilis et inhabilis dive rsis temporibus. A man may be capable and incapable at different times.

Horno vocabulum est naturae; persona juris civilis. “Man” (homo) is a term of nature; “person” (persona), a term of civil law.

Hora non est multum de substantia negotii, licet in appello de ea aliquando fiat mentio. The hour is not of much consequence to the substance of business, although in appeal it is sometimes mentioned.

Hostes sunt qui nobis vel quibus nos bellum decernimus; caeteriproditores velpraedones sunt. Enemies are those on whom we declare war, or who declare it against us; all others are traitors or pirates.

I

Ibi semper debetfieri triatio ubi juratores meliorem possunt habere not itiam. A trial should always be held where the jurors can have the best information.

Id certurn est quod certurn reddi potest. That is certain which can be made certain.

Id certum est quod certum reddi potest, sed Id magis certurn est quod de semetipso est certurn. That is certain which can be made certain, but that is more certain which is certain of itself.

Idern agens etpatiens esse non potest. The same person cannot be both agent and patient (i.e., the doer and person to whom the thing is done).

Idem estfacere et nolleprohibere cum possis. It is the same thing to commit an act and to refuse to prohibit it when you can.

Idem estfacere et non prohibere cum possis et qui non prohibit cumprohiberepossit in culpa est (ant juet). It is the same thing to commit an act and not to prohibit it when you can; and he who does not prohibit when he can prohibit is at fault (or does the same as ordering it to be done).

Idem est nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere. It is the same thing to say nothing and not to say enough. • To say a thing in an insufficient manner is the same as not to say it at all. Applied to the plea of a prisoner.

Idern est non esse et non apparere. It is the same thing not to be as not to appear. • What does not appear on the record is considered nonexistent.

Idem est non pro ban et non esse; non deficit jus sedprobatb. It is the same thing not to be proved and not to exist; the law is not deficient but the proof.

Idern est scire aut scire debere aut potuisse. To be bound to know or to have been able to know is the same as to know.

Idem non esse et non apparere. It is the same thing not to exist and not to appear.

Idern semper antecedenti proximo refertur. Idem (the same) always refers to the nearest antecedent.

Identitas vera colligitur cx multitudine signorum. True identity is collected from a great number of signs.

Id perfectum est quod cx omnibus suis partibus constat. That is perfect which is complete in all its parts.

Idperfectum est quod ex omnibus suispartibus constat; et nihilperfectum est dum aliquid restat agendum. That is perfect which is complete in all its parts; and nothing is perfect while anything remains to be done.

Idpossumus quod dejurepossumus. We are able to do that which we can do lawfully.

Id quod est magis remotum non trahit ad se quod est magis juncturn, sed e contrario in omni casu. That which is more removed does not draw to itself what is more closely joined, but to the contrary in every case.

Id quod nostrum est sine facto nostro ad alium transferri non potest. What belongs to us cannot be transferred to another without our act (or deed).

Id solurn nostrum quod debitis deductis nostrum est. That alone is ours which is ours after debts have been deducted. Id tantum possurnus quod dejurepossumus. We can do only what we can lawfully do.

Ignorantia comm quae quis scire tenetur non excusat. Ignorance ofthose things that anyone is bound to know does not excuse.

Ignorantia excusatur non juris sedfacti. Ignorance of fact is excused but not ignorance of law.

Ignorantiafacti excusat, ignora ntia juris non excusat. Ignorance of fact excuses; ignorance of law does not excuse. • Every person must be considered cognizant of the law; otherwise, there is no limit to the excuse of ignorance.

Ignorantiajudicis est calamitas innocentis. The ignorance of the judge is the misfortune of the innocent.

Ignorantiajuris non excusat. Ignorance of the law does not excuse,

Ignorantia juris quod quisque scire tenetur neminem excusat. Ignorance of the law, which everyone is bound to know, excuses no one.

Ignorantiajuris sui non praejudicatjuri. Ignorance of one’s right does not prejudice the right.

Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of law excuses no one.

Ignorantia praesumitur ubi scientia non pro batur. Ignorance is presumed where knowledge is not proved.

Ignorare legis est lata culpa. To be ignorant of the law is gross neglect of it.

Ignoratis terminis artis, ignoratur et ars. Where the terms of an art are unknown, the art is also unknown.

Ignoscitur ei qui sanguinem suum qualiter redemptum voluit. A person is forgiven who chose to purchase his own blood (or life) on any terms whatsoever. • Whatever a pert son may do under the fear of losing life or limb will not be held binding on him in law. 1 Bi. Corn. 127.

Ille honore dignus est, qui se suae legi bus patriae, et non sine magno labore et industria, reddidit versatum. He is worthy of honor (or office), who with much labor and industry has made himself familiar with the laws of his country.

Illud quod alias licitum non est, necessitasfacit licitum, et necessitas inducitprivilegium quod jureprivatur. That which is not otherwise lawful, necessity makes lawful; and necessity brings in as a privilege what is denied by right. 10 Coke 61.

Illud quod alteri unitur extinguitur, neque aniplius per se -vacare licet. That which is united to another is extinguished, nor can it again be detached.

Imaginaria venditio non estpretio accedente. It is not an imaginary sale (but a real one) if a price is added (or agreed upon). Dig. 50.17.16.

Immobilia situm sequuntur. Immovables follow (the law of) their locality.

Imperu majestas est tutelae salus. The majesty of the empire is the safety of its protection.

Imperitia culpac annumeratur. Unskillfulness is reckoned as a fault (as blameworthy conduct or neglect). • Also termed Imperitia enumeratur culpae.

Imperitia est maxima mechanicorum poena. Unskillful- ness is the greatest punishment of mechanics (i.e., from its effect in making them liable to those by whom they are employed).

Impersonalitas non concludit nec ligat. Impersonality neither concludes nor binds.

Impius et crudehsjudicandus est qut libertati non favet. A person is to be judged impious and cruel who dqes not favor liberty.

Impossibilium nulla obligatia est. There is no obligation to perform impossible things.

Impotentia excusat legem. Powerlessness excuses (or dispenses with) law. • The impossibility of doing what is required by the law excuses nonperformance or nonenforcement. 2 BI. Corn. 127.

Improbi rumores dissipati sunt rebellionis prodromi. Wicked rumors spread abroad are the forerunners of rebellion.

Impunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquendi. Impunity provides a constant inclination to wrongdoing. 4 Coke 45.

Impunitas semper ad deteriora invitat. Impunity invites (an offender) to ever worse offenses.

In aequali jure melior est conditiopossidentis. When the parties have equal rights, the condition of the possessor is the better.

In altaproditione nulluspotest esse accessorius sedprincipalis solummodo. In high treason no one can be an accessory but only a principal.

In alternativis electio est debitoris. The debtor has the choice among alternatives.

In ambigua voce legis eapotius accipienda estsignificatio quae vitio caret; praesertim cutn etiam voluntas legis ex hoc colligi possit. In an ambiguous expression of the law, the meaning will be preferred that is free of defect, especially when the intent of the law can be gathered from it.

In ambiguis casibus sempter praesumitur pro rege. In doubtful cases the presumption is always in favor of the king.

In ambiguis orationibus maxime sententia spectanda est ejus qui easprotulisset. In ambiguous expressions, the opinion (or meaning) of the person who made them is chiefly to be regarded.

In ambiguo sermone non utrumque dicimus sed Id duntaxat quod volumus. When the language we use is ambiguous, we do not use it in a double sense, but merely in the sense that we intend.

In Anglia non est interregnum. In England there is no interregnum. • The heir to the throne is understood to succeed from the instant of his predecessor’s death or removal.

In atrociori bus delictispunitur affectus licet non sequatur effectus. In the more atrocious crimes, the intent (Or attempt) is punished even if the effect does not follow.

In capitalibus sufficit generalis malitia, cum facto paris gradus. In capital cases general malice, with an act of an equal degree of guilt, is sufficient.

In casu extremae necessitatis omnia sunt communia. In a case of extreme necessity, everything is in common.

Inca utefactum pro non facto habetur. An alteration done carelessly (inadvertently) will be taken as not done. Dig. 28.4.1.

Incendium aere alieno non exult debitorem. A fire does not release a debtor from his debt.

Incerta pro nullis habentur. Things uncertain are considered as nothing.

Incerta quantitas vitiat actum. An uncertain quantity vitiates the act.

Incertum ex incerto pendens lege reprobatur. An uncertainty depending upon an uncertainty is rejected by law.

Incidentia nolunt separari. Incidents may not be separated.

Incidentia rei tacitesequuntur. The incidents of a thing follow it implicitly (though unexpressed).

Incivile est, nisi tota legeprospecta, una aliqua particula ejusproposita, judicare vel respondere. It is improper, unless the wholelaw has been examined, to give judgment or advice on any single clause of it.

Incivile est, nisi tota sententia inspecta, de aliqua parte judicare. It is improper to give an opinion on any part of a passage without examining the whole.

In civilibus ministerium excusat, in criminalibus non item. In civil matters, agency (or service) excuses, but not so in criminal matters.

In civilibus voiuntas pro facto reputabitur. In civil cases the will (or intention) will be reckoned as the act.

In claris non est locus conjecturis. In obvious instances there is no room for conjectures.

Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius. See Expressio unius est exclusio alterius.

Incolas domiciliumfacit. Literally, the domicile makes the residents. • That is, the principal place of residence establishes legal residency. Often rendered conversely, Incola domiciliumfacit (residence creates domicile).

In comniodato haec pactio, ne dolus praestetur, rata non est. In a loan for use (corn modatum) , a pact excluding liability for fraud is invalid. • Often extended to contracts for loans in general. Dig. 13.6.17.

Incommodum non solvit argumentum. An inconvenience does not solve (or demolish) an argument.

In conjunctivis oportet utramque partem esse veram. In conjunctive constructions, each part must be true.

In consimili casu consimile debet esse remedium. In a similar case, the remedy should be similar.

In consuetudinibus non diuturnitas temporis red soliditas rationis est consideranda. In customs, not length of time but the soundness of the reason should be considered. In contingentibus et liberis, tota ratio facti stat in voluntatefacientis. In actions that are contingent and free (or unconstrained), the whole reckoning of the act depends on the will of the doer.

In contra ctibus, benigna; in testamentis, benignior; in restitutionibus, benignissima interpretatlofacienda est. In contracts, the interpretation or construction should be liberal; in wills, more liberal; in restitutions, most liberal.

In contractibus, rei veritaspotius quam scripturaperspici debet. In contracts, the truth of the matter ought to be regarded rather than the writing.

In contractibu.s tacite insunt quae sunt moris et consuetudinis. In contracts, matters of custom and usage are tacitly implied. • A contract is understood to contain the customary clauses, although they are not expressed.

In contrahenda venditione, ambiguum pactum contra venditorem interpretandum est. In the contract of sale, an ambiguous agreement is to be interpreted against the seller.

In conventionibus, contrahentium voluntaspotius quam verba spectari placuit. In agreements, the intention of the contracting parties should be regarded more than their words.

Incorporalia be/b non adquiruntur. Incorporeal things are not acquired by war. /

In criminalibus non est argumentandum a pan ultra casum a lege definitum. In criminal cases it is not allowed to argue by analogy beyond the event (or offense) defined by law.

In criminalibusprobationes debent esse luce clariores. In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than light.

In criminalibus silentium praesentis consensum praesum it; in civilibus nonnunquam vel absentis et ubi ejus interest etian. ignorantis. In criminal cases, consent is presumed from the silence of a person present; in civil cases, sometimes, (consent is presumed from the silence) of a person absent and even ignorant, where the matter is (or should be) of some concern to him.

In criminalibus suffi cit generalis malitia intentionis cum facto Paris gradus. In criminal cases, a general wickedness of intention is sufficient if combined with an act of equal or corresponding degree.

In criminalibus voluntas rep utabitur pro facto. In criminal matters, the intent will be reckoned as the deed. • In criminal attempts or conspiracy, the intention is considered in place of the act. 3 Inst. 106.

Inde datae leges nefortior omnia posset. Laws were made lest the stronger should have unlimited power.

Indefinitum aequipoilet universali. The undefined is equivalent to the whole.

Indefinitum supplet locum universalis. The undefined supplies the place of the whole.

Independenter se ha bet assecuratio a viagglo navis. The route insured is distinct from the voyage of the ship.

Index animi sermo. Speech is the index of the mind. • This maxim is also sometimes written Index animi sermo en (and can also be translated as, “Speech is an indication of thought”).

Indictment defebony est contra pacem domini regis, coronam et dignitatem suam, in genere et non in individuo; quia in Anglia non est interrçgnum. Indictment for felofly is against the peace of our lord the king, his crown and dignity, in general and not in his individual person; because in England there is no interregnum.

In disjunctivis suffi cit alteram partem esse veram. In disjunctive constructions, it is sufficient if either part is true. In dubils benigniora praeferenda runt. In doubtful cases, the more liberal constructions are to be preferred.

In dubiis magis dignum estaccipiendum. In doubtful cases, the more worthy is to be accepted.

In dubiis non praesumitur pro testamento. In doubtful cases, there is not presumption in favor of the will.

In dubio, haec legis constructio quam verba ostendunt. In a doubtful case, the construction of the law is what the words indicate.

In dubio, pars mitior est sequenda. In a doubtful case, the gentler course is to be followed.

In dubio pro dote, libertate, innocentia, possessore, debitore, reo, respondendum est. In a doubtful case one must respond in favor of dowery, liberty, or innocence, (on the side) of the possessor, of the debtor, or of the defendant.

In dubio pro innocentia respondendum est. In a doubtful case, the answer (or decision) should be in favor of innocence.

In dubio pro legefori. In a doubtful case, the law of the forum (is to be favored).

In dubio pro natura. When in doubt, in favor of nature.

In dubio pro reo. When in doubt, in favor of the defendant.

In dubio sequendum quod tutius est. In a doubtful case, one must follow the safer course.

In eo quod plus sit semper inest et minus. The lesser is always included in the greater.

In eo quod vel is qui petit veils a quo petitur lucrumfacturus est, durior causa est pet itoris. In a case where either the plaintiff or the defendant will gain, the cause of the applicant is the harder. Dig. 50.17.33.

Inesse potest donationi modus, conditio sive causa; Ut modus est; si conditio; quia causa. In a gift there may be manner, condition, or cause; as (Ut) introduces a manner; if (si), a condition; because (quia), a cause. 

In executione sententiae alibi Iatae, servarejus loci in quo fit executio, non ubi resjudicata. In the execution of a judgment rendered elsewhere (or abroad), (one must) observe the law of the place where the execution takes effect, not where the matter was adjudged.

In expositione instrumentorum, mala grammatica, quod fieri potest, vitanda est. In the construction of instruments, bad grammar is to be avoided as much as possible.

In facto quodse habetad bonum et malum magis de bona quam de malo lex intendit. In an act (or deed) that may be considered good or bad, the law looks more to the good than to the bad.

Infans est qui, propter defectum aetatis, pro sefri nequeat. He is an infant who, on account of defect of age, cannot speak for himself.

Infans non multum afurioso distat. An infant does not differ much from a lunatic.

Infantes de damnopraestare tenentur, depoena non item. Infants are obliged to make good regarding lOSS, but not regarding punishment.

Infavorabilibus annus incoeptus pro completo habetur. In things favored the year begun is held as completed.

Infavorabilibus magis attenditur quod prodest quam quod nocet. In things favored, what does good is more regarded than what does harm.

Infavo rem vitae, libertatis, et innocentiae omnia praesuinuntur. All presumptions are in favor of life, liberty, and innocence.

Infictionejuris semper aequitas existit. In a fiction of law there is always equity. • A legal fiction is always consistent with equity.

Infictione furls sempersubsistit aequitas. In a legal fiction equity always abides (or prevails).

Infinitum injure reprobatur. That which is endless is condemned in law.

Infraudem vero qui, salvis verbis legis, sententiam ejus circumvenit. Anyone who, observing the letter of the law, circumvents the law’s intent, acts in fraud of the law. Dig. 1.3.29.

In generalibus latet error. Error lurks in general expressions. • This maxim is sometimes written In generalibus versa tur error (meaning “error dwells in general expressions”).

In genere quicunque aliquid dicit, sive actor sive reus, necesse est Ut pro bat. In general, whoever alleges anything, whether plaintiff or defendant, must prove it.

In haeredes non solent transire actiones quaepoenales cx maleficio sunt. Penal actions arising from anything of a criminal nature do not pass to heirs.

In his enim quae suntfavorabilia animae, quamvis sunt damnosa rebus, fiat aliquando extentio stat uti. In things that are favorable to the spirit, though injurious to property, an extension of the statute should sometimes be made. In his quae de jure communi omnibus conceduntur, consuetudo alicujus patriae vel loci non est alleganda. In those things that by common right are conceded to all, the custom of a particular country or place is not to be adduced.

In us quae sunt meraefacultatis nunquampraescribitur. Prescription does not run against a mere power or facultyto act. 

Iniquissima pax est anteponenda justissimo bello. The most unjust peace is to be preferred to the justest war.

Iniquum est alios permittere, alios inhibere mercaturam. It is inequitable to permit some to trade and to prohibit others to do so.

Iniquum est aliquem rei sul essejudicem. It is unjust for anyone to be judge in his own cause.

Iniquum est ingenuis hominibus non esse liberam rerum suarum alienationem. It is unjust for freeborn individuals not to have the free disposal of their own property.

Injudiclis minori aetati succurritur. In judicial proceedings, allowance is made for a minor (in age).

Injudicio non creditur nisi juratis. In court no one is trusted except those sworn.

Injure non remota causa, sed proxima, spectatur. In law, the proximate, and not the remote, cause is regarded.

Injure omnis definitio periculosa est. In law every definition is dangerous.

Injuria fit ci cui convicium dictum est, vel de eofactum carmen famosum. An injury is done to the person of whom an insult was said, or concerning whom an infamous song was made.

Injuria illata judici, seu locum tenenti regis, videtur ipsi regi illata, maxime sifiat in exercente officium. An injury offered to a judge, or person representing the king, is considered as offered to the king himself, especially if it is done in the exercise of his office.

Injuria non excusat injuriam. A wrong does not excuse a wrong.

Injuria non praesumitur. A wrong is not presumed.

Injuriapropria non cadet beneficiumfacientis. No benefit shall accrue to a person from his own wrongdoing.

Injuria servi dominum pertingit. The servant’s wrongdo ing reaches the master. • The master is liable for injury done by his servant.

Injustum est, nisi tota lege inspecta, de una aliqua ejus particulapropositajudicare vel respondere. It is unjust to give judgment or opinion concerning any particular clause of a law without having examined the whole law.

In lege omnia semper in praesenti stare cen.sentur. In law all things are always judged from their present statuaIn locofacti imprestabilis subsit damnum et interesse. Damages and interest come in the place of an act that cannot be performed.

In majore summa continetur minor. In the greater sum is contained the less.

In maleficiis voluntas spectatur, non exitus. In criminal offenses, the intention is regarded, not the event.

In maleficio ratihabitlo mandato comparatur. In delict (or tort), ratification is equivalent to authorization. Dig.43.16.1.15.

In maxima potentia minima licentia. In the greatest power there is the least license.

In mercibus illicitis non sit commercium. Let there be no commerce in illicit goods.

In necessariis, unitas; in non necessarlis, libertas; in utrisque, caritas. In those things which are essential let there be unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in both, charity.

In nostra lege una comma eve rtit totum placitum. In our law, one comma upsets the whole plea.

In novo casu, novum remedium apponendum est. In a new case a new remedy must be applied.

In obscuris inspici solere quod verisimilius est, aut quod plerumquefieri solet. In obscure cases it is usual to regard what is more probable or what is more often done.

In obscuris quod minimum estsequimur. In obscure cases, we follow what is least so.

In odium spoliatoris omniapraesumuntur. Everything is presumed to the prejudice of the despoiler.

In omni actione ubi dua.e concurrunt districtiones, videlicet in rem et in personam, illa districtio tenenda est quae magis timetur et magis ligat. In every action where two distresses (or forms of distraint) cqncur, that is in rem and in personam, the distraint is to be chosen that is more dreaded and that binds more firmly. Bracton 372.

In omnibus contractibus, sive nominat is sive innominatis, permutatio continetur. In all contracts, whether express or implied, there must be something given in exchange. 2 BI. Corn. 444.

In omnibus (fere) poenalibusjudiciis, et aetati et iniprudentiaesu ccurritur. In almost all penal judgments, allowance i made for age (or youth) and lack of discretion. Dig. 50.17. 108.

In omnibus obligationibus, in quibus dies non ponitur, praesenti die debetur. In all obligations, when no date is fixed (for performance), the thing is due the same day.

In omnibus quidem, maxime tamen injure, aequitas spectanda sit. In all affairs indeed, but especially in those that concern the administration ofjustice, equity should be regarded.

In omni re nascitur res quae Ipsam rem exterminat. In everything, the thing is born that ends the thing itself.

In pan causa possessor potior haberi debet. When two parties have equal claims, the possessor should be considered the stronger. • The phrase is also translated in this way: in an equal case the possessor ought to be preferred.

In pan causa potior est conditio possidentis. When two parties have equal claims, the position of the possessor is the stronger.

In pan delicto melior est conditio possidentis. When both parties are equally at fault, the position of the possessor is the better.

In pan delictopotior est conditio dcfendentis. Where both parties are equally in the wrong, the position of the defendant is the stronger.

In personam actio est, qua ium ço agimus qui obligatus est nobis adfaciendum aliquidvel dandum. An action against a person (in personam) is one in which we sue someone who is under obligation to us to do or to give something. Dig. 44.7.25.

In poenalibus causis benignius interpretandum est. In penal cases, the more liberal interpretation is to be made. In praeparatoriis ad judiciumfavetur actoni. In things preparatory to trial, the plaintiff is favored.

In praesentia majonis cessatpotentia minoris. In the presence of the superior, the power of the inferior ceases. • This maxim is sometimes written Inpraesentia majorispotest atis, minor potestas cessat (meaning “in the presence of the superior power, the minor power ceases”).

In pretio emptionis et venditionis natural iter licet contrahentibus se circumvenire. In setting the price for buying and selling, it is naturally allowed to the contracting parties to get the better of each other.

In propria causa nemo judex. No one can be judge in his own cause.

Inquissimapax est anteponenda iustissimo bello. The most unfair peace is preferable to the most just war.

In quo quis delin quit, in eo dejure estpuniendus. In whatever matter one offends, in that the person is rightfully to be punished. • Coke refers to forfeiture of the office abused. Co. Litt. 233b.

In rebus manifestis errat qui auctoritates legum allegat; quia perspicua vera non sunt pro banda. A person errs who adduces authorities on the law in matters self-evident; because obvious truths need not be proved.

In rebus novis constituendis evidens esse utilitas debet, ut recedatur ab eo jure, quod diu aequum visum est. Insettling matters anew, there should be some utility (or advantage) clearly in view, to justify departing from a rule of law that has long seemed equitable. Dig. 1.4.2.

In rebus quae suntfavorabilia animae, quamvis sunt damnosa rebus,fiat aliquando extenslo statuti. In things that are favorable to people, though injurious to the things, a statute should sometimes be extended.

In re communi neminem dominorumjurefacere quicquam, invito altero, posse. In common property no one ofthe coproprietors can do (or make) anything against the will of the other. Dig. 10.3.28.

In re communi potion (melior) est conditio prohibentis. In common property (matters ofjoint ownership) the partner who refuses has the stronger (or better) position.

In re dubia benigniorem interpretationem sequi non minus justius est quam tutius. In a doubtful matter, to follow the more liberal interpretation is as much the more just as it is the safer course.

In re dubia magis infitiatio quam affirmatio intelligenda. In a doubtful matter, the negation is to be understood rather than the affirmation.

In re lupanani testes lupanares admittentur. In a matter concerning a brothel, prostitutes will be admitted as witnesses.

In rem actio est per quam rem nostramquaeab aliopossideti tr petimus, et seinper adversus eum est qui rein possidet. The action in rem is that by which we seek our property that is possessed by another, and is always against him who possesses the property. Dig. 44.7.25.

In re obscura melius estfavere repetitioni quam adventicio lucro. In an obscure case it is better to favor repetition than adventitious gain. Dig. 50.17.41.1.

In re pan, potiorem causam esse prohibentis constat. Where joint owners have equal rights, it is agreed that the cause of him prohibiting (any proposed use) is the stronger. Dig. 10.3.28.

In re propria iniquum admodum est alicui Ucentiam tribuere sententiae. It is extremely unjust to assign anyone the privilege ofjudgment in his own cause.

In republica maxime conservanda sunt jura belli. The laws of war must be especially preserved in the state.

In restitutionem, non inpoenam, haeressuccedit. The heir succeeds to the restitution, not the penalty.

In restitutionibus benignissima interpretatiofacienda est. The most favorable construction is to be made in restitutions.

Insanus est qui, abjecta ratione, omnia cum impetu etfurorefacit. The person is insane who, having cast aside reason, does everything with violence and rage.

In satisfactionibus non permittitur ampliusfieri quam semelfactum est. In payments, it is not permitted that more be received than has been received once for all (i.e., after payment in full).

Instans estfinis unius temporis etprincipium alterius. An instant is the end of one time and the beginning of another.

In stipulationibus cum quaeritur quid actum sit, verba contra stipulatorem interpretanda sunt. In agreen1ents, when there is a question whether action has been takn, the terms are to be interpreted against the party offering them.

In stipulationibus id tempus spectatur quo contrahimus. In agreements, there is regard to the time at which we reach agreement.

In strumenta domestica seu adnotatlo, si non aliis a.oque adminiculis adjuventur, adprobationem sola non sufficiunt. Private family documents or a memorandum, if not supported by other evidence, are not of themselves sufficient proof.

In suo hactenusfacere licet quatenus nihil in alienum immitt it. One may do what he likes on his own property, so long as he does not invade (or send anything into) another’s property.

In suo quisque negotio hebetior est quam in alieno. Everyone is less perceptive (of flaws) in his ows, business than in that of another.

Intentio caeca mala. A concealed intention is an evil one. Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni. The intention ought to be subject to the laws, not the laws to the intention.

Intentio legitime cognita et legi bus consentanea maxime habenda. An intention legitimately known and agreeable to the laws is to be especially regarded.

Intentio mea imponit nomen open meo. My intent gives a name to my act.

Inter alias causas acquisitionis magna, celebris etfamosa, est causa donationis. Among other modes of acquiring property, a great method, frequently used and well known, is that of gift.

Inter alios resgestas aliis non posse praejudiciumfacere saepe constitutum est. It has been often decided that matters transacted between other parties cannot cause prejudice (to those who were not involved).

Inter arma silent leges. Amid the arms of war the laws are silent.

Interdum evenit ut exceptio quaeprimafaciejusta videtur tamen inique noceat actori. It sometimes happens that a plea of defense that seems just prima facie nevertheless injures an actor unfairly. Gaius, Inst. 4.126.

Interdum venit ut exceptio quaeprimafaciejusta videtur tamen inique noceat. It sometimes happens that a plea that seems prima facie just is nevertheless injurious and unfair.

Interest reipublicae ne maleJIcia reman eant impunita. It is in the interest of the state that crimes not remain unpunished.

Interest reipublicae, ne quis re sua male utatur. It is in the • state’s interest that no one shall use his property improperly.

Interest reipubiicae ne sua quis male utatur. It is in the interest of the state that no one misuse his own property.

Interest reipubiicae quod homines conserventur. It is in the interest of the state that people should be protected.

Interest reipublicae resjudicatas non rescindi. It is in the interest of the state that judgments already given not be rescinded.

Interest reipubiicae suprema hominum testamenta rata haberi. It is in the interest of the state that a person’s last will should be held valid.

Interest rcipublicae Ut bonis bene sit, et male malis, et suum cuique. It is in the state’s interest that things go well for the good, badly for the wicked, and that each have what is his own.

Interest reipublicae ut carceres sint in tuto. It is in the interest of the state that prisons should be secure.

Interest reipublicae utpax in regno conservetur et quaecunquepaci adversentur provide declinentur. It is in the interest of the state to preserve peace in the kingdom and prudently to decline whatever is adverse to it.

Interest reipubiicae ut quilibet re sua bene utatur. It is in the interest of the state that each person make good use of his own property.

Interest reipublicae utsitfinis litium. It is in the interest of the state that there be a limit to litigation.

Inter pacem et bellum nihil medium. There is no middle course between peace and war.

Interpretare et concordare leges legi bus est optimus interpretandi modus. To interpret and reconcile laws so they harmonize is the best mode of construction.

Interpretatio charta rum benignefacienda est ut res inagis valeat quam pereat. The construction of a deed is to be made liberally, that the thing may rather take effect than perish.

Interpretatiofienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Such a construction should be made that the measure may take effect rather than fail.

Interpretatio tails in ambiguis semperfienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et absurdum. In ambiguities, a construction should always be found such that what is unsuitable and absurd may be avoided.

Interruptio multiplex non follitpraescriptionem semel obtentam. Repeated interruptions do not remove a prescription (or acquisition by long use) once it has been obtained. In testamentis plenius test atoris intentionem scrutamur. In wills we diligently examine the testator’s intention.

In testamentispienius voluntates testantium interpretantur. In wills the intentions of the testators are more fully (or liberally) construed.

In testamentis ratio tacita non debet considerari, sed verba solum .cpectari debent; adeo per divinationem mentis a verbis recedere durum est. In wills an unexpressed meaning ought not to be considered, but one must look to the words alone; so troublesome is it to depart from the words by guessing at the intention.

Intestatus decedit qui aut omnino testamentum non fecit aut non jurefecit, aut Id quodfecerat ruptum irritumve factum est, aut nemo ex eo haeres exstitit. A person dies intestate who either has made no will at all or has not made it legally, or when the will that he had made has been annulled or become ineffectual, or when there is no living heir.

In toto etpars continetur. In the whole the part also is included.

In traditionibus scriptoruin (chartarum) non quod dictum est, sed quodgestum (factum) est, inspicitur. In the delivery of writings (deeds), not what is said but what is done is to be considered.

Intrafortunam debet quisque manere suam. Everyone is bound to live within his means (or abide by his fate). 

Inutilis labor et sine fructu non est e,ctus legis. Useless and fruitless labor is not the effect of law.

Inveniens libellumfamosum et non corrumpenspunitur. A person who discovers a libel and does not destroy it is punished.

In veram quantitatemfidejussor teneatur, nisi pro certa quantitate accessit. Let the surety be held for the true amount unless he agreed for a certain amount.

In verbis non verba sed reset ratio quaerenda est. In wording, it is not the words but the substance and the meaning that is to be sought.

Invito beneficiurn non datur. No benefit is given to one unwilling. • No one is obliged to accept a benefit against his consent. Dig. 50.17.69.

In vocibus videndum non a quo sed ad quid sutnatur. In discourse it is not the point from which but the end to which it is drawn that should be regarded.

Ipsae leges cupiunt ut jute regantur. The laws themselves desire that they should be governed by right.

Ira furor brevis est. Anger is a short insanity.

Ira hominis non implet justitiam Dci. The wrath of a man does not fulfill the justice of God.

Is damnum dat qui jubet dare; ejus vero nulla culpa est cuiparere necesse est. He causes a loss who gives orders to cause it; but no blame attaches to him who is under the necessity of obeying. Dig. 50. 17.169.

Is qui actionem ha bet ad rem recuperandam ipsam rem habere videtur. He who has a (valid) action to recover a thing is regarded as having the thing itself.

Ita lex scripta est. So the law is written.

Ita semper fiat relatio Ut valeat dtspositio. Let the relation be so made that the disposition may stand.

Iter est jus eundi, ambulandi hominis; non etiarnjumenturn agendi vel vehiculum. A way is a right of going or walking for a human being, and does not include the right of driving a beast of burden or a carriage.

Iludex decidere debet. The judge should decide. lura novit curia. The court knows the laws.

Iurisdictio inhaeret, cohacret, adhaeret imperio; par in pa rem non ha bet iudiciurn. Legal authority clings to sovereignty, belongs to it, and remains inherent to it; no one may pass judgment on an equal.

Ins posterioris derogat priori. The right of one who follows detracts from the right of one who precedes.