MAXIMS

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Jacere telum voluntatis est; ferire quem nolueris, fortunae. To throw a dart or weapon is a matter of will; but to strike a person whom you did not wish to strike, is a matter of chance. Cicero, Topics 17.64.

Judex acquit atein semper spectare debet. A judge ought always to regard equity.

Judex ante oculos aequitatem semper habere debet. A judge ought always to have equity before his eyes.

Judex bonus nihil cx arbitria suofaciat necpropositione domesticae voluntatis, sed juxta leges etjurapronunciet. A good judge should do nothing from his own preference or from the prompting of his private desire; but he should pronounce according to law and justice.

Judex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur. The judge is condemned when the guilty party is acquitted.

Judex debet judicare secundurn allegata etprobata. The judge ought to give judgment according to the allegations and the proofs.

Judex de pace civium constituitur. A judge is appointed for the peace of the people.

Judex est lex loquens. The judge is the speaking law.

Judex ha be re debet duos sales, salem sapientiae, ne sit insipidus, et salem conscientiae, ne sit diabolus. A judge should have two salts: the salt of wisdom, lest he be foolish; and the salt of conscience, lest he be devilish.

Judex non potest esse testis inpropria causa. A judge cannot be a witness in his own cause.

Judex non potest inj uriam sibi datum punire. A judge cannot punish a wrong done to himself.

Judex non reddit plus quam quodpetens ipse requirit. The judge does not give more than the plaintiff himself demands.

Judicandum est legi bus non exemplis. Judgment must be given by the laws, not by examples.

Judices non tenentur exprimere causam sententiae suae. Judges are not bound to explain the reason of their judgments.

Judices recenter et subtiliter excogitatis minimefavent contra corn munem legem. Judges favor least f all new and subtle rationales against common law.

Judicia in curia regis non adnihilentur, sed stent in robore suo quousque per erro rem aut attinctam adnullentur. Let judgments in the king’s court not be invalidated but remain in force until annulled by error or attaint. 2 Inst. 360.

Judicia in deliberationibus crebro maturescunt, in acceleratoprocessu nunquam. Judgments often ripen in the course of deliberation, never in hurried proceeding. 2 Inst. 210.

Judicia posteriora sunt in legefortiora. The later decisions are stronger in law.

Judicia sunt tan quam juris dicta, etpro vent ate accipiuntur. Judgments are, as it were, the dicta (or sayings) of the law, and are received as truth.

Judiciis posterioribusfides est adhibenda. Trust should be put in the later decisions.

Judici officium suum excedenti non paretur. A judge who exceeds his office (or jurisdiction) is not obeyed.

Judicisatispoena estquodDeum habetultorern. It is punishment enough for a judge that he has God to take vengeance on him.

Judicis est inpronuntiando sequi regulam, exceptione non probata. It is the proper role of a judge in rendering his decision to follow the rule, when the exception has not been proved.

Judicis est judicare secundum allegata etprobata. It is the proper role of a judge to decide according to the allegations and proofs.

Judicis est jus dicere, non dare. It is the proper role of a judge to state the right, not to endow it. • Generally interpreted, it is the duty of the judge to administer justice and not to make law.

Judicis officium est opus diei in die suo perficere. It is the duty of a judge to finish the work of each day within that day.

Judicis officium est Ut res ita tempora rerum quaerere; quaesito tempore tutus ens. It is the duty of a judge to inquire into the timing of events as much as the matters themselves; by inquiring into the time, you will be safe.

Judicium a non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. A judgment given by a person who is not its proper judge (not in the proper jurisdiction) is of no consequence. 10 Coke 76.

Judicium est us quae pro religionefaciantfaveri, etsi verba desint. It is a sound decision for those things that promote religion to be favored, though the words be lacking.

Judicium est juris dictum, et per judicium jus est noviter revel atum quod diufuit velatum. Adjudication is the utterance of the law, and by it the law that was long hidden is newly revealed.

Judicium est quasi juris dictum. Judgment is, as it were, a pronouncement of the right (or a saying of the law).

Judicium non debet esse illusorium, suum effectum habere debet. A judgment ought not to be illusory (or deceptive); it ought to have its proper effect. 2 Co. Inst. 341.

Judicium redditur in invitum, in praesumptione legis. In presumption of law, a judgment is given against one’s will. Judicium semper pro veritate accipitur. A judgment is always taken for truth.

Junctajuvant. Things joined together are helpful.

Jura debet esse omni exceptione maiora. Laws should be greater than any exception.

Jura ecciesiastica limitata sunt infra Jim ites separatos. Ecclesiastical laws are limited within separate bounds.

Jura eodem modo destituuntur quo constituuntur. Laws are abrogated or repealed by the same means by which they are made.

Juramentum est indivisibile, et non est admittendum in parte verum et inpartefalsum. An oath is indivisible; it is not to be accepted as partly true and partly false.

Jura naturaesunt immutabilia. The laws of nature are unchangeable.

Jura publica anteferenda privatis. Public rights are to be preferred to private.

Jurapublica exprivatopromiscue decidi non debent. Public rights ought not to be determined in confusion, from private considerations. • In Coke’s example, the validity of a sheriff’s warrant is not affected by a dispute among the parties. Co. Lift. 181b.

Jurare est Deunz in testem vocare, et est act us divini cult us. To swear is to call God to witness, and is an act of religion.

Jura regis specialia non conceduntur per generalia verba. The special rights of the king are not granted by general words.

Jura sanguinis nullo jure clviii dirimipossunt. The rights of blood (or kinship) cannot be destroyed by any civil law.

Jurato creditur in judicio. In judgment credit is given to the swearer.

Juratores debent esse vicini, suflicientes et minus suspecti. Jurors ought to be neighbors, of sufficient means and free from suspicion (literally, less suspected).

Juratoressunt judicesfacti. The jurors are the judges of fact. Juratus creditur in judiclo. In judgment a person who has sworn an oath is believed.

Jure naturae aequum est neminem cum aiterius detrimento et injuriafieri locupietiorem. By the law of nature, it is just that no one should be enriched to the detriment and injury of another.

Jun non est consonum quod aliquis accessorius in curia regis convincatur ante quam aiiquis defactofuerit attinctus. It is not consonant to justice that any accessory should be convicted in the king s court before anyone has been attainted of the fact (i.e., under sentence of attainder for committing the act). • The accessory should not be convicted before the principal is proved guilty. 2 Co. Inst. 183.

Jurisonguinis nunquampraescribitur. No prescription (or statutory limit) runs against a right by blood.

Jurisdictio estpotestas depublico introducta, cum necessitatejuris dicendi. Jurisdiction is a power introduced for the public good, on account of the necessity of dispensing justice.

Juris effectus in executione consist it. The effect of law (or of a right) consists in the execution.

Juris ignorantla est cum jus nostrum ignoramus. It is ignorance of law when we do not know our own right.

Junispraecepta sunt haec, honeste vivere, alterum non iaedere, suum cuique tribuere. These are the precepts of the law: to live honorably, not to injure another, to render to each person his due. Just. Inst. 1.1.

Jurisprudentia est divinarum utque humanaruni rerum not itia, justi atque injusti scientia. Jurisprudence is the knowledge of things divine and human, the science of the just and the unjust. Just. Inst. 1.1.1.

Jurisprudentia legis communis Angliae est scientia socialis et copiosa. The jurisprudence of the common law of England is a social science comprehensive in scope.

Junis quidem ignorantiam cuique nocere,facti verum ignorantiam non nocere. Ignorance of law is prejudicial to everyone, but ignorance of fact is not.

Jus accnescendi inter mercatores locum non ha bet, pro beneficio commercii. For the good of commerce, the right of survivorship has no place among merchants.

Jus accrescendi inter mercatores, pro beneficio commercii locum non habet. For the benefit of commerce, there is no right of accrual among merchants.

Jus accrescendi praefertur oneri bus. The right of survivor- ship is preferred to incumbrances.

Jus accrescendi praefertur uitimae voluntati. The right of survivorship is preferred to a last will.

Jus civile est quod sibipopulus constituit. The civil law is what a people has established for itself.

Jus constitui oportet in his quae utpiurimum accidunt, non quae ex inopinato. Law ought to be made with a view to the cases that happen most frequently, and not to those that are unexpected.

Jus descendit, et non terra. A right descends, and not the land.

Jus dicere (et) non jus dare. To state the right (and) not to endow it. • Generally interpreted, to declare the law (and) not to make it.

Jus est ars boni et aequl. Law is the science of what is good and just.

Jus est norma recti; et quicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. The law is the rule of right; and whatever is contrary to the rule of right is an injury.

Jus etfraus nun quam cohabitant. Right and fraud never abide together.

Jus ex injuria non oritur. A right does not arise from a wrong.

Jus in re inhaerit ossibus usufructuarii. A right in the thing cleaves to the person (literally, the bones) of the usufructuary.

Jusjurandjforma verbis differt, re convenit; hunc enim sensum habere debet, utDeus invocetur. The form of taking an oath differs in language, but agrees in meaning; for it ought to have this sense, that God is invoked.

Jusjurandum inter aliosfactum nec nocere nec prodesse debet. An oath made between third parties ought neither to hurt nor to profit.

Jus naturaeproprie est dictamen rectae rationis, quo scimus quid turpe, quid honestum, quid faciendum, quid fugiendum. The law of nature is properly the dictate of right reason, by which we know what is dishonorable and what is honorable; what should be done, and what should be avoided.

Jus naturale est quod apud homines eandem ha bet potentiam. Natural right is that which has the same force among (all) mankind.

Jus nec inflecti gratia, necfrangi potentia, nec adulterari pecunia potest; quod si non modo oppressum, sed desertum aut negligentia asservatumfuerit, nihil est quod quisquam se habere certum, aut a patre accepturum, aut liberis esse relicturum, arbitretur. The law cannot be bent by favor, not broken by power, nor corrupted by money; for not only if it be overthrown, but even if it be neglected or carelessly preserved, there is nothing secure in what anyone may think he has, or will inherit from his father, or yet may leave to his children. Cicero, Pro Caecina 73.

Jus non habenti tute non paretur. It is safe not to obey a person who has no right.

Jus non pat itur Ut idem bis solvatur. The law does not permit that the same thing be twice paid.

Jus non scriptum tacito et illiterato hoininum consensu, et mon bus expressum. The unwritten law is expressed in the tacit and unwritten agreement of the people and in their customs. Bi. Corn. 1.64; Gellius 11.18.4.

Juspublicumprivatorumpactis mutani non potest. A public right cannot be altered by the agreements of private persons.

Jus publicum et privatum est quod ex naturalibus praeceptis, aut gentium, aut civilibus est collectum etquod in jure scripto jus appellatur, id in lege Angliae rectum esse dicitur. Public and private law is that which is collected from the precepts of nature, of peoples in general, or of particular states; and what in written law is called “jus” by the law of England is said to be “right.”

Jus quo universitates utuntur est idem quod habentprivati. The right that corporations exercise is the same as the right that individuals possess.

Jus respicit aequitatem. Law regards equity.

Jus sanguinis numquam praescribitur. A right by blood never prescribes.

Jus summum saepe summa est malitia. The height of law is often the height of mischief. • Right too rigid hardens into wrong. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 796.

Jus superveniens auctoni accrescit successori. An additional or enhanced right for the possessor accrues to the successor.

Jus testamentorum pertinet ordinario. The right of testaments pertains to the ordinary.

Justitia debet esse libera, quia nihil iniquius venalijustitia; plena, quia just itia non debet claudicare; et celer, quia dilatio est quaedam negatlo. Justice ought not to be bought, for nothing is more hateful than venal justice; full, for justice ought not to be defective; and quick, for delay is a certain denial.

Justitiae soror incorruptafides. Faith unbroken is the sister of justice. Horace, Carmina 24.6.

Justitia est constans etperpetua voluntas jus suum cuique tribuendi. Justice is a steady and unceasing disposition to render to every person his due.

Justitia est duplex: severe punien.s et verepraeveniens. Justice is double: punishing with severity, and truly preventing.

Justitia est libertate prior. Justice comes before liberty.

Justitia est virtus excellens etAltissimo complacens. Justice is an excellent virtue and pleasing to the Most High.

Just itiafirinatur solium. By justice the throne is strengthened.

Just itia nemini neganda est. Justice is to be denied to no one.

Justitia non est neganda, non differenda. Justice is not to be denied or delayed.

Justitia non novitpatrem nec matrem, solum venitatem spectatjustitia. Justice knows neither father nor mother; justice looks to truth alone.

Jus triplex est: proprietatis, possessionis, etpossibilitatis. Right is threefold: of property, of possession, and of possibility.

Jus vendit quod usus approbavit. The law dispenses what use has approved.

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La conscience est Ia plus changeante des régles. Conscience is the most changing of rules.

La ley favour Ia vie d’un home. The law favors a man’s life.

La ley favour l’inheritance d’un home. The law favors a man’s inheritance.

La ley voit plus tost suffer un mischiefe que un inconvenience. The law will sooner suffer a mischief than an inconvenience.

Lata culpa dolo aequiparatur. Gross negligence is equivalent to fraud.

Le contratfait Ia loi. The contract makes the law.

Legatos violare contra jus gentium est. It is contrary to the law of nations to do violence to ambassadors.

Legatum morte testatoris tantum confirmatur, sicutdonatio inter vivos traditione sola. A legacy is confirmed by the death of the testator, in the same manner as a gift from a living person is by delivery alone.

Legatus regis vice fungitur a quo destinatur et honorandus est sicut ille cujus vicem gent. An ambassador fills the place of the king by whom he is appointed, and is to be honored in the same way as the person whose place he fills.

Legem enim brevem esse oportet, quo facihus ab imperitis ten eatur. Laws ought to be short, that they may be more readily kept by the unlearned. Seneca, Epistles 94.38.

Legem enim contractus dat. The contract gives the law.

Legem terrae amittentesperpetuam infamiae notam indç merito incurrunt. Those who lose the law of the land thereby justly incur an eternal stigma of infamy.

Leges Angliae sunt tripartitae: jus commune, consuetudines, ac decreta comitiorum. The laws of England are threefold: common law, customs, and decrees of parliament.

Leges autem a victoribus dicuntur, accipiuntur a victis. Laws (or conditions) are pronounced by conquerors, accepted by the conquered.

Leges et constitutionesfuturis certum est dare formam negotiis non adfacta practerita revocari; nisi nominatim et depraeterito tempore et adhucpendentibus negotiis cautum sit. Laws and statutes are regarded as regulating future negotiations not past transactions; unless they are expressly made to apply to both past and to pending matters.

Legesfigendi et refigendi consuetudo estpericulosissima. The practice of adding and annulling laws is a most dangerous one. 4 Coke pref.

Legesfixitpretio atque refixit. He shaped and reshaped laws for a price; he promulgated and annulled laws at a price.. The reference is to a judge who took bribes.

Leges humanae nascuntur, vivunt, et moriuntur. Laws that humans have made are born, live, and die.

Leges naturaeperfectissimae sunt et immutabiles; humani verojuris conditio semper in infinitum decurrit, et nihil est in eo quod perpetuo stare possit. The laws of nature are most perfect and immutable; but the condition of human law is an unending succession, and there is nothing in it that can stand forever.

Leges non verbis sed rebus sunt impositae. Laws are imposed on affairs, not words.

Leges posteriorespriores contrarias abrogant. Subsequent laws repeal prior conflicting ones.

Leges quae ret rospiciunt raro et magna cum cautionesunt ad hi bendae; neque enim Janus locaretur in legi bus. Laws that are retrospective should be rarely regarded and (only) with great caution; for Janus should have no place among the laws.

Leges suum ligent latorem. Laws should bind their own author.

Leges vigilantibus, non dormientibussubvenjunt. The laws aid those who keep watch, not those who sleep (that is, the vigilant, not the negligent).

Lege totum, si vis scire totum. Read the whole, if you would know the whole.

Legibus sumptis desinentibus, lege naturae utenduni est. Where manmade laws fail, the law of nature must be used.

Legis constructio non facit injuriam. The construction of law does not do wrong.

Legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The interpretation of law obtains the force of law.

Legislatorum est viva vox, rebus et non verbis legem imponere. The voice of legislators is a living voice, to impose laws on (actual) affairs and not on (mere) words.

Legis minister non tenetur, in executione officii sui, fugere aut retrocedere. The minister of the law is not bound, in the execution of his office, either to flee or to retreat.

Legis virtus haec est: imperare, vetare, permittere, punire. The force of the law is this: to command, forbid, permit, and punish. Dig. 1.3.7.

Legitime imperanti parere necesse est. One who commands lawfully must be obeyed.

Legitimus haeres etfihius est quem nuptiae demonstrant. A lawful son and heir is he whom the marriage declares to be lawful.

Legum omnes servi sumus, ut liberi essepossimus. We are slaves to the law, in order to be free. Cicero, Pro Cluentio 53.146.

Le ley de Dieu et ley de terre sont tout un, et l’un et l’autre preferre etfavour le common etpublique bien del terre. The law of God and the law of the land are all one; and both promote and favor the common and public good of the land.

Le ley est le plus haut enheritance que leroy ad, car par le ley, ii mesme et touts ses sujets sont rules, et Si le ley ne fuit, nul roy ne nul enheritance serra. The law is the highest inheritance that the king possesses; for by the law both he and all his subjects are ruled; and if there were no law, there would be neither king nor inheritance.

Le salut du peuple est la sup rême loi. The safety of the people is the highest law.

Les fictions naissent de Ia loi, etnon la loi des fictions. Fictions arise from the law, and not law from fictions.

Les lois ne se chargent depunir que les actions exterieures. Laws undertake to punish only outward actions.

Levis exceptio excusat a spoiio. A slight defense excuses from the consequences of spuilzie (a taking of movables).

Lex aequitategaudet. Law delights in equity.

Lex aequitategaudet; appetitperfectum; est norma recti. The law delights in equity: it covets perfection; it is a rule of right.

Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem. The law sometimes follows equity.

Lex Angliae est lex misericordiae. The law of England is a law of mercy.

Lex Angliae lex terrae est. The law of England is the law of the land.

Lex Angliae non pat itur absurdum. The law of England does not allow an absurdity.

Lex Angliae nun quam matris sed semperpatris conditionem imitari partum judicat. The law of England rules that the offspring always follows the condition of the father, never that of the mother.

LexAngliae nun quam sine parliamento mutanpotest. The law of England can never be changed without (act of) parliament. • This maxim is sometimes written Lex Angliae sine Parliamento mutari non potest (also translatable as “the law of England cannot be changed but by Parliament”).

Lex beneficialis rei consimili remediunipraestat. A beneficial law affords a remedy in a similar case.

Lex certa esto; poena certa, et crimini idonea, et legi bus praefinita. Let the law be certain; and let the punishment be certain, adequate to the crime, and previously determined by the laws.

Lex citius tolerare vultprivatum damnum quam publicum malum. The law would sooner endure a private loss than a public evil.

Lex contra Id quodpraesumitprobationem non recipit. The law accepts no proof against that which it presumes.

Lex deficere non potest in justitiä exhibenda. The law cannot fail in dispensing justice.

Lex defuturo, judex de praeferito. The law (provides) for the future, the judge for the past.

Lex dilationes semper exhorret. The law always abhors delays.

Lex est ab aeterno. The law is from eternity.

Lex est anima regis, et rex est anima legis. Law is the soul of the king, and the king is the soul of the law.

Lex est dictamen rationis. Law is the dictate of reason.

Lex est exercitus judicum tutissimus ductor. The law is the safest leader of the army of judges.

Lex est linea recti. Law is a straight line.

Lex est norma recti. Law is a rule of right.

Lex est ratio summa, quaejubetquae sunt utilia et necessana, et contraria prohi bet. Law is the highest form of reason, which commands what is useful and necessary and forbids the contrary.

Lex estsanctio sancta, jubens honesta etprohibens contraria. Law is a sacred sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary.

Lex estsumma ratio. Law is the highest reason.

Lex est tutissima cassis; sub clypeo legis nemo decipitur. Law is the safest helmet; under the shield of the law no one is deceived.

Lexfacit regem. Law makes the king (i.e., makes the monarch king).

Lexfavet doti. The lav favors dower.

Lexfingit ubi subsistit aequitas. Law creates a fiction where equity abides.

Lex haereditates liberas esse vult non in perpetuum astrictas. The law intends inheritances to be free for those that are not strictly bound for all time.

Lex injusfa non est lex. An unjust law is not a law.

Lex intendit vicinum vicinifacta scire. The law presumes that one neighbor knows the actions of another.

Lexjudicat de rebus necessariofaciendis quasi re ipsafactis. The law judges of things that must necessarily be done as if actually done.

Lex mercatoria est lex terrae. The mercantile law is the law of the land.

Lex necessitatis est lex temponis, i.e., instantis. The law of necessity is the law of time, i.e., time present.

Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. The law forces no one to do vain or useless things.

Lex neminem cogif ostendere quod nescirepraesumitur. The law forces no one to make known what he is presumed not to know.

Lex neminifacit injuniam. The law does wrong to no one.

Lex nemini operatur iniquum, neminifacit injuniam. The law works an injustice to no one and does wrong to no one.

Lex nhlfacitfrustra, nil jubetfrusfra. The law does nothing in vain and commands nothing in vain.

Lex non a rege est violanda. The law is not to be violated by the king.

Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. The law does not compel to impossible ends.

Lex non consilia nuda, sed actus apentos nespicit. The law regards not mere intentions, but open acts.

Lex non cunat de minimis. The law is not concerned with matters of least consequence.

Lex non debet deficere con querentibus in just itia exhibenda. The law ought not to fail in dispensing justice to those with a grievance.

Lex non deficit in justitia exhibenda. The law does not fail in showing justice.

Lex non exacte definit, sed arbitnio boni vinipermittit. The law does not define exactly, but trusts in the judgment of a good man.

Lex non favet votis delicatorum. The law does not favor the wishes of the fastidious.

Lex non intendit aliquid impossi bile. The law does not intend anything impossible.

Lex non novitpatrem, nec matreni; solam veritatem. The law knows neither father nor mother; only the truth.

Lex non onitur ex rnjunia. The law does not arise from an unlawful act.

Lex non patiturfractiones et divisiones statuum. The law does not tolerate fractions and divisions of estates. 1 Coke 87a.

Lex non praecipit inutilia, quia inutilis labor stultus. The law does not command useless things, because useless labor is foolish.

Lex non requinit verificari quod apparet curiae. The law does not require that to be proved which is apparent to the court.

Lex nostra neminem absentem damnat. Our law condemns no one in his absence.

Lex orbis, insanis, etpauperibus pro tutore atqueparente est. The law is the guardian and father of orphans, the insane, and the poor.

Lex plus laudatur quando rationeprobatur. The law is more praised when it is consonant with reason.

Lex posterior derogat priori. A later statute repeals an earlier one.

Lex posterior generalis non derogat priori speciali. A later, general law does not repeal an earlier specialized law.

Lexprospicit, non respicit. The law looks forward, not backward.

Lexpunit mendaciam. The law punishes falsehood.

Lexpurepoenalis obligat tantum adpoenam, non item ad culpam; lexpoenalis mixta, et ad culpain obligat, et ad poenam. The law that is strictly penal is binding only as to penalty, not as to fault; the mixed penal law is binding as to both fault and penalty.

Lex rejicit superflua, pugnantia, incongrua. The law rejects superfluous, contradictory, and incongruous things.

Lex rep ro bat moram. The law disapproves of delay. Lex respicit aequitatem. Law regards equity.

Lex scripta si cesset, id custodiri oportet quod moribus et consuetudine inductum est; et, si qua in re hoc defecerit, tunc id quodproximum et consequens ei est; et, si Id non appareat, tune jus quo urbs Romana utiturservari oportet. If the written law is silent, that which is drawn from manners and custom ought to be observed; and, if that is in any manner defective, then what is next and consistent with it; and, if that does not appear, then the law that Rome uses should be followed.

Lex semper dabit remedium. The law will always give a remedy.

Lex semper intendit quod convenit rationi. The law always intends what is agreeable to reason.

Lex specialis derogat legi generali. A special law detraJts from the general law.

Lexspectatadproximam non ad retnotam causam. The law looks to the proximate not to the remote cause.

Lex spectat naturae ordinen,. The law regards the order of nature.

Lex succurrit ignoranti. The law assists the ignorant.

Lex succurrit minoribus. The law assists minors.

Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur. The law speaks to all with one mouth.

Lex vigilantibus, non dormientibus, subvenit. Law aids the watchful, not the sleeping.

Liberata pecunia non libe rat offerentern. The return of money does not free the party presenting it (from liability).

Libertas est cum quisque quod i’elitfaciat modo secundum leges bonas, communi consensu latas, certas, praefinitas, apertas. Liberty is (the condition) when each may do what he choses, so long as he acts in accordance with good laws, enacted by common consent, that are certain, predetermined, and clear.

Libertas est naturalisfacultas ejus quod cuiquefacere libet, nisi quod dejure aut vi prohibetur. Liberty is the natural power of doing whatever one pleases, except what is prevented by law or force.

Libertas estpotestasfaciendi Id quodjure liceat. Liberty is the power of doing what is permitted by law.

Libertas est res inestimabilis. Liberty is an inestimable thing.

Libertas inaestimabilis res est. Liberty is a priceless good. Libertas non recipit aestimationern. Freedom does not admit of valuation.

Libertas omnibus rebus favorabilior est. Liberty is more favored than all things.

Libertates regales ad coronam spectantes ex concéssione regum a corona exierunt. Royal franchises relating to the Crown have emanated from the Crown by grant of kings. Libertatis (est) sui quemque juris dimittendi ac retinendi esse dominum. It is part of liberty that everyone be master of quitting or retaining his own right. Cicero, Pro Balbo 31.

Libertinum ingratum leges civiles in pristinam servitutem redignunt; sed leges Angliae semel manumissum semper Jibe rum judicant. The civil laws reduce an ungrateful freedman to his original slavery; but the laws of England regard a person once manumitted as ever after free.

Liberum corpus nu1Ian recipit aestimationem. The body of a free person allows no price to be set on it. Dig. 9.3.7.

Liberum est cuique apud se explorare an expediat sibi consilium. Everyone is free to ascertain for himself whether advice is to his advantage.

Liberum est cuique apud se explorare an expediatur sibi consilium. It is free for every one to weigh the matter in his own mind; or to have resort to counsel.

Librorum appellatione continentur omnia i’olumina, sive in charta, sive in niembrana sint, sive in quavis alia materia. Under the name of books are contained all volumes, whether on paper, or on parchment, or on any other material.

Licet dispositio de interessefuturo sit inutills, tamenpotest fieri declaratio praecedens quae sortiatur effect urn interveniente novo actu. Even if the grant of a future interest is inoperative, yet a declaration precedent maybe made that may take effect, provided a new act intervenes.

Licet eos exheredare quos et occidere licebat. It is permissible to disinherit those whom it was lawful to kill (when the Roman paterfamilias had that power over his sons).

Licita bene rniscentur,formula nisijuris obstet. Lawful acts are well joined together, unless some form of law prevents it.

Ligeantia est quasi legis essentia; est vinculumfidei. Allegiance is, as it were, the essence of the law; it is the bond of faith.

Ligeantia est vincul umfidei; ligeantia est legi.s essentia. Allegiance is the bond of fealty and the essence of law.

Ligeantia naturalis nullis claustris coercetur, nullis metis refraenatur, nullisfinibus premitur. Natural allegiance is restrained by no barriers, curbed by no bounds, compressed by no limits.

Ligna et lapides sub armorum appellatione non continenfur. Sticks and stones are not contained under the name of arms.

Linea recta est index sul et obliqui; lex est linea recta. A right line is an index of itself and of an oblique; law is a right line. Co. Litt. 158b.

Linea recta semperpraefertur transversali. The right line is always preferred to the collateral.

Literaepatentes regis non erunt vacuae. Letters patent of the king will not be void.

Literae scriptae man ent. Written words last.

Litis nomen omnem actionem significat, sive in rem, sive inpersonam sit. The word “lis” (a lawsuit) signifies every action, whether it is in rem or in personam.

Lit us est quousque maximusfiuctus a man pervenit. The shore is where the highest wave from the sea has reached.

Lobhgation sans cause, ou sur unefausse cause, ou sur cause illicite, ne peut avoir aucun effet. An obligation without consideration, or on a false consideration, or on unlawful consideration, cannot have any effect.

Locus actum regit. The place rules the act.

Locus contractus regit actum. The place of the contract governs the act.

Locus pro solutione reditus aut pecuniae secundum conditionem dimissionis aut obligationis est stricte observandus. The place for the payment of rent or money is to be strictly observed according to the condition of the lease or obligation.

Longapatientia trahitur ad consensum. Long sufferance is construed as consent.

Longa possessio est pads jus. Long possession is a right of peace.

Longa possessiojusparit. Long possession begets a right.

Longa possessioparitjus possidendi et tollit actionem vero domino. Long possession produces the right of possession and deprives the true owner of his action.

Longum est iterperpraecepta, breve et efficax per statuta. The journey is long when prompted by precepts; it is short and efficient when guided by statutes.

Longum tempus et longus usus qui excedit memoriam hominum sufficit pro june. Long time and long use beyond the memory of men suffice for right.

Loquendum ut vulgus, sentiendum ut docti. We should speak as the common people; we should think as the learned.

L’ou le ley done chose, la ceo done remedie a vener a ceo. Where the law gives a right, it gives a remedy to recover.

Lubricum linguae (glossae) non facile trahendum est in poenam. A slip of the tongue ought not lightly to be submitted to punishment.

Lucrumfacere expupilli tutela tutor non debet. A guardian ought not to make money out of the guardianship of his ward.

Lunaticus, qui gaudet in lucidis intervallis. A person is (still) a lunatic who enjoys lucid intervals.

M

Magis de bmw quam de malo lex intendit. The law favors a good rather than a bad construction. • When an agreement’s words are susceptible of both a favorable and unfavorable meaning, the former is adopted. Thus, a bond conditioned to assign all offices will be construed to apply to assignable offices.

Magisjus nostrum quam jus alienum servemus. We should follow our own rather than a foreign law.

Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum expenientia. Use is the master of things; experience is the mistress of things.

Magistratus indicat (ostendit) virum. The office shows the man.

Magna Charta et Charta de Foresta sont appelés les deux grandes charters. Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest are called the two great charters.

Magna componere parvis. To compare great things with small things.

Magna culpa dolus est. Great fault (or gross negligence) is equivalent to fraud.

Magnafuit quondam magnae reverentia chartae. Great was the reverence formerly paid to the Great Charter.

Magna negligentia culpa est; magna culpa dolus est. Great negligence is fault; great fault is fraud.

Maihemium est homicidium inchoatum. Mayhem is incipient homicide.

Maihemium est inter crimina majora minimum, et inter minora maximum. Mayhem is the least of great crimes, and the greatest among small.

Maihemium est membri mutilatio, et dici potent, ubi aliqui.s in aliquaparte sui corporis effectus sit inutilis ad pugnandum. Mayhem is the mutilation of a limb, and can be said (to occur) when a person is injured in any part of his body so as to be useless in a fight. Major continet in se minus. The greater includes the less. 

Majorepoena affectus quam legibus statuta est non est infamis. A criminal afflicted with a greater punishment than is provided by law is not infamous. 4 Co. Inst. 66.

Major haereditas venit unicuique nostrum a juTe et legibus quam aparentibus. A greater inheritance comes to every one of us from right and the laws than comes from parents.

Majori summae minor inest. The lesser is included in the greater sum.

Major numerus in se continet minorem. The greater number contains in itself the less.

Majus con tinet minus. The greater contains the less.

Majus dignum trahit ad se minus dignum. The more worthy draws to itself the less worthy.

Majus est delictum seipsum interjicere quam alium. It is a greater crime to kill oneself than to kill another.

Majus est delictum seipum occidene quam alium. It is a greater crime to kill one’s self than another.

Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam; sed in expositione instrumentorum mala grammatica quoadfieni possit evitanda est. Bad grammar does not vitiate a deed; but in the construction of instruments, bad grammar, as far as possible, is to be avoide&

Male captus, bene detentus. Wrongly captured, well detained.

Maledicta expositio quae corrumpit textum. It is a cursed construction that corrupts the text.

Male enim se res ha bet, cum quod virtute effici debet id tentaturpecunia. It is a bad situation when what should be achieved by merit is attempted with money. Cicero, De Officiis 2.6.22.

Maleficia non debent remanene impunita, et impunitas continuum affectum tnibuit delinquendi. Evil deeds ought not to remain unpunished, and impunity affords continual incitement to wrongdoing. 4 Coke 45.

Maleficiapropositis distinguuntur. Misdeeds are distinguished from proposals; crimes are distinguished by the intention (with which they are committed).

Malitia est acida, est mali animi affectus. Malice is sour; it is the quality of a bad mind.

Malitla supplet aetatem. Malice makes up for age.

Malitiis ho-minum est obviandum. The malicious designs of men must be thwarted. a Also found as Malum hominum est obviandum.

Malitiis hominum non est indulgendum. The malicious desires of men must not be indulged (or tolerated)

Malum non ha bet efficientem sed deficientem causam. Evil has not an efficient but a deficient cause.

Malum non praesumitur. Evil is not presumed.

Malum quo communius eopejus. The more common the evil, the worse.

Malus usus est abolendus. An evil custom ought to be abolished; a bad usage should be abolished.

Malus usus est abolendus, quia in consuetudinibus, non diuturnitas temponis, sed soliditas rationis est consideranda. An evil custom is to be abolished, because, in customs, not length of time, but solidity of reason, is to be considered.

Mandata licita strictam recipiunt interpretationem, sed illicita latam et extensam. Lawful commands receive a strict interpretation, but unlawful ones receive a wide and an expansive interpretation.

Mandatarius terminos sibi positos transgredi non potest. A mandatary cannot exceed the bounds of his authority

Mandatum nisigratuitum nullum est. Unless a mandate is gratuitous (without payment), it is not a mandate.

Mandatum non suscipere (cui libet) liberum est; susceptum autem consummandum aut quam primum renuntiandum est, ut aut per semet ipsum aut per alium eandem rem mandator exsequatur. It is an option (for anyone) to decline a mandate, but, when undertaken, it must be fulfilled or renounced as soon as possible, so that the principal may take up the same matter in his own behalf or by another agent. Just. Inst. 3.26.

Manifesta pro batione non indigent. Obvious facts are npt in need of proof.

Manumittere, quod idem est extra man urn velpotestatem ponere. ‘Manumission’ means the same as putting beyond ‘hand’ (manus) and power. Co. Litt. 137.

Maritagium est aut liberum aut servitio obligatum; jibe- rum maritagium dicitur ubi donator vult quod terra sic data quieta sit et libera ab omni seculari servitio. A marriage portion is either free or bound to service: it is called free (or frank marriage) when the giver wills that the land thus given be exempt from all secular service. Co. Litt. 21.

Matrimonia debent esse libera. Marriages ought t be free.

Matrimonium subsequens legitimosfacit quoad sacerdotium non quoad successionem propter consuetudinem regni quae se ha bet in contrarium. Subsequent marriage legitimates as regards priesthood but not as regards succession because of the custom of the kingdom, which is to the contrary.

Mat rimonium subsequens toilEt peccatum praecedens. A subsequent marriage removes preceding fault.

Matter en ley ne serra mise en bouche del jurors. Matter of law shall not be put into the mouths of jurors.

Maturiora sunt vota mulierum quam virorum. The wishes of women are of quicker maturity than those of men. That is, women arrive earlier at eligibility for marriage. 6 Coke 71.

Maxima illecebra estpeccandi impunitatis spes. The greatest incitement to sin (or wrongdoing) is the hope of impunity. Cicero, Pro Milone 16.43.

Maxime Eta dicta quia maxima est ejus dignitas et certissima auctoritas, atque quod maxime omnibus probetur. A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest and its authority is the most certain, and because it is most approved by all.

Maximepaci sunt contraria vis et injuria. The greatest enemies to peace are force and wrong.

Maxim us erroris populus magister. The people are the greatest master of error.

Meliorem conditionem suam facere potest minor, deteriorem nequaquam. A minor can improve or make his condition better, but in no way worse. . This maxim is sometimes written Meliorem con ditionem facere potest minor, deteriorem nequaquam (also translatable as “a thinor can make his condition better, but by no means worse”).

Melior est causa possidentis. The cause of the possessor is preferable.

Melior est conditio defendentis. The condition of the defendant is the better.

Melior est conditiopossidentis et ref quam actoris. Better is the condition of the possessor, and that of the defendant (is better) than that of the plaintiff.

Melior est conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus ha bet. Better is the condition of the possessor where neither of the two has the right.

Melior est justitla vere praeveniens quam severe puniens. Justice that truly prevents a crime is better than that which severely punishes it.

Melius est in tempore occurrere quam post causam vulnera turn remedium quaerere. It is better to respond in time than to seek a remedy after the case is damaged. . Coke introduces this maxim with the phrase neper negligentiam damnum incurrat: “lest he incur damage through negligence.” 2 Co. Inst. 299.

Melius est jus deficlens quam jus incertum. Law that is deficient is better than law that is uncertain.

Melius est omnia mala pati quam malo consentire. It is better to suffer every wrong than to consent to wrong.

Melius estpeterefontes quam sectari rivulos. It is better to seek the sources than follow the rivulets. Coke Litt. 305b.

Melius est recurrere quam male currere. It is better to run back than to run wrong (or badly). • It is better to retrace one’s steps than to proceed improperly.

Melius est ut decem noxil evadant quam ut unus innocens pereat. It is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent person perish.

Meiiu,s et tutius si non festines. It is better and safer not to be in haste.

Mens testatoris in testamentis spectanda est. In wills, the intention of the testator is to be regarded.

Mentiri est contra mentem ire. To lie is to go against the mind.

Mercis appellatio ad res mobiles tantum pertinet. The term “merchandise” belongs to movable things only.

Mercis appeliatlone homines non contineri. Under the name of merchandise human beings are not included.

Merito beneficium legis amittit qui legem ipsam subvertere intendit. A person deservedly loses the protection of the law who attempts to overturn the law itself.

Merito retribuat Rex legi quod lex attribuat ei. The king rightly repays the law what (i.e., the power that) the law ascribes to him; let the king repay to the law what the law attributes to him.

Merx est quidquid vendi potest. Merchandise is whatever can be sold.

Metus quein agnoscunt leges in excusationem criminis est talis qui caderepossit in constantem virum. The fear that the law acknowledges in the excuse of a crime is such as can fall upon a steadfast man.

Meum estpromittere, non dimittere. It is mine to promise, not to discharge.

Minatur innocentibus qul parcit nocentibus. A person threatens the innocent who spares the guilty.

Minima poena corporalis est major qualibetpecuniaria. The smallest bodily punishment is greater than any pecuniary one.

Minime mutanda sunt quae certam habuerunt interpretationem. Things that have had a fixed interpretation are to be altered as little as possible.

Minimum est nihilo proximum. The least is next to nothing.

Ministeria recipiunt vicarium, sed non item pleraquejudiciaria. The offices of ministers (or administrators) allow substitution, but, for the most part, judicial offices do not.

Minor ante tenipus agere non potest in casu proprietatis, nec etiam convenire. A minor before majority cannot act in a case of property, not even to agree.

Minor ante tempus agere non pot est in casu proprietatis, nec etiam conven ire; differetur usque aetatem; sed non cadit breve. A minor before majority cannot act in a case of property; not even to agree; it will be deferred until majority; but a writ does not fail.

Minor jurare non potest. A minor cailnot take an oath.

Minor minorem custodire non debet; alie,s enimpraesumitur male regere qui seipsum regere nescif. A minor ought not be guardian of a minor, for he is presumed to govern others ill who does not know how to govern himself.

Minor non teneturplacitare super haereditate. The minor is not bound to plead on account of his inheritance.

Minor non ten etur respondere durante minori aetati, nisi in causa dotis, pro pterfavorem. A minor is not bound to answer during his minority, except as a matter of favor in a cause of dower.

Minor qui infra aetatem 12 annorumfuerit utlagari non potest nec extra legem poni, quia ante talem aetatem, non est sub lege aliqua nec in decenna. A minor who is under 12 years of age cannot be outlawed nor placed be. yond the law, because before that age he is not under any law nor in a decennary.

Minor septemdecirn annis non admittitur fore executorem. A person under 17 years of age is not admitted to be an executor.

Minor ten etur in quantum locupletiorfactus. A minor is bound to the extent to which he has been enriched (or benefited).

Minus est actionein habere quam rem. It is less (of an asset) to have a right of action than to have the property itself. Dig. 50.17,204.

Minus solvit qui tardius solvit; nam et tempore minus solvitur. A person pays too little who pays too late; for, from the delay, the payment is less.

Misera est servitus ubi jus est vagum aut incertum. It is a miserable slavery where the law is vague or uncertain.

Misericordia domini regis est qua quis per juramen turn legalium hominum de vicineto eatenus amerciandus est, ne aliquid de suo honorabili contenemento amittat. The mercy of our lord the king is such that anyone may be amerced by a jury of good men from his vicinage (or neighborhood) to this extent (only), that he not lose any part of his honorable tenement. 

Mitius imperanti melius paretur. The more mildly one commands, the better is he obeyed.

Mobilia non ha bent situm. Movables have no fixed site or locality.

Mobiliapersonam sequuntur, immobilia situni. Movable things follow the person; immovable ones, their locality.

Mobilia sequunturpersonarn. Movables follow the person.

Modica circunsstantiafacti jus mutat. A small circumstance attending an act alters the right.

Modus debet esse certus, rationabilis, etperantiquus. A custom ought to be reasonable, certain, and very ancient.

Modus de non decimando non valet. A prescription not to pay tithes is void.

Modus et conventio vincunt legern. Customary form and the agreement of the parties overcome the law. • One of the first principles relative to the law of contract. 2 Coke 73.

Modus legem dat donationi. Custom (or form) gives law to a gift.

Moneta estjusturn medium et mensura rerum comniutabilium, nam per medium monetae fit omnium rerum conven iens etjusta aestimatio. Money is the just medium and measure of all exchangeable things, for by the medium of money a suitable and just estimation of all things is made.

Monetandijus comprehenditur in regalibus quae nunquani a regio sceptro abdicantur. The right of coining is included among those rights of royalty that are never relinquished by the kingly scepter.

Monopolium dicitur, cum unus solus aliquod genus mercaturae universurn emit, pretium ad suum libiturn statuens. It is said to be a monopoly when one person alone buys up the whole of one kind of commodity, fixing a price at his own pleasure.

Monurnenta quae nos recorda vocamus sunt veritatis et yetustatis vestigia. The monuments that we call records are the vestiges of truth and antiquity.

Mora debitoris non debet esse creditori damnosa. Delay by a debtor ought not to be injurious to a creditor.

Mora reprobatur in lege. Delay is disapproved of in law.

Mors dicitur ultimum supplicium. Death is called the “extreme penalty” (most severe and last).

Mors omnia solvit. Death dissolves all things.

Morte legatariiperit legatum. By the death of the legatee (during the life of the testator) the legacy lapses.

Morte mandatorisperit manda turn. A mandate fails on the death of the mandant.

Mortgagium scuto magis quam gladio est. A mortgage is used as a shield rather than a sword.

Mortis momentum est ultimurn vitae momentum. The moment of death is the last moment of life.

Mortuus exitus non est exitus. A dead issue is not issue. . That is. a child born dead is no child.

Mos retinendus estfidelissimae vetustatis. A custom of the truest antiquity is to be retained.

Mulcta damnumfamae non irrogat. A fine does not impose a loss of reputation.

Multa conceduntur per obliquum quae non conceduntur de directo. Many things are conceded indirectly that are not allowed directly.

Multafidern promissa levant. Many promises lessen confidence.

Multa ignoramus quae nobis non laterentsi veterum lectio nobisfuitfamiliaris. We are ignorant of many things that would not be hidden from us if the reading of old authors were familiar to us.

Multa injure communi contra rationem disp utandi pro communi utilitate introducta sunt. Many things have been introduced into the common law, with a view to the public good, that are contrary to logical reasoning. Co. Litt. 70b.

Multo exercitationefacilius quam regulispercipies. You will perceive many things much more easily by practice than by rules.

Multa non vetat lex quae tamen tacite damnavit. The law does not forbid many things that yet it has silently condemned.

Multa transeunt curn universitate quae non per se franseunt. Many things pass with the whole that would not pass separately.

Multi multa, nemo omnia novit. Many men know many things; no one knows everything.

Multiplex et indistinctum pant confusionem; et quaestiones quo simpliciores, co lucidiores. Multiplicity and indistinctness produce confusion: the simpler questions of, the more lucid they are.

Multiplicata transgressione crescatpoenae inflictio. The infliction of punishment should increase with the repetition of the offense. 

Multitudinein decemfaciunt. Ten make a multitude.

Multitudo erranti urn non pant erronipatrocinium. The multitude of those who err does not produce indulgence for error.

Multitudo imperitorumperdit cuniarn. A multitude of ignorant practitioners destroys a court.

Multo utilius estpauca idonea effundere, quam multis inutilibus lzorninesgravani. It is much more useful to pour forth a few suitable things than to burden mankind with many useless things.

Mutua debet esse dominii et homagiifidelitatis connexio, ita quod quantum homo debet domino ex homagio, tan- turn illi debet dorninus ex dominio debetpraeter solam reverentiam. The bond of dominion and homage should be mutual, for as much as a man owes his lord from homage, so much the lord owes to him from his lordship, except only reverence.