MAXIMS

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Nam qui haeret in litera haeret in cortice. For he who confines himself to the letter sticks at the surface (lit. “in the bark”).

Nascit urus pro jam nato habetur quarndiu agitur de ejus commodo. One about to be born is held as already born as long as the issue is to his benefit; a child conceived is treated as born to the extent that it is to his or her benefit.

Natura appetitperfectum, ita et lex. Nature aspires to perfection, and so does the law. F

Naturae vis maxima; natura bis maxima. The force of nature is greatest; (and, as some say,) nature is doubly greatest. 2 Co. Inst. 564.

Naturafidejussionis sit stnictissimi juris et non durat vel extendatur de read rem, depersona ad personam, de tempore ad temp us. The nature of the contract of suretyship is strictissimi juris, and does not endure or should not be extended from thing to thing, from person to person, or from time to time.

Naturale est quidlibet dissolvi eo tnodo quo ligatur. It is natural for a thing to be dissolved in the same way in which it is bound.

Jiatura non facitsaltum, ita nec lex. Nature makes no leap, ‘ and neither does the law.

Natura non facit vacuum, nec lex supervacuum. Nature makes no vacuum, and the law nothing purposeless.

Naufragiurn commune omnibus est consolatio. A calamity common to all is (also) a consolation. (Or simply Commune naufragium, Erasmus, Adagia 4.3.9.)

Ne ad consilium ante quam voceris. Go not to the council chamber before you are summoned.

Nec beneficiurn pertinet ad eum qui non debetgerere officium. No benefit belongs to him who was not obliged to perform a certain duty.

Nec curia deficeret injustitia exhibenda. Nor should the court be deficient in showing justice.

Nec enim cum sacco adire debet. One is not obliged to carry a moneybag wherever one goes (when under an obligation to pay immediately). Dig. 46.3.105.

Necessariurn est quod non potest aliter se ha be re. That is necessary which cannot be otherwise.

Necessitas est lex temporis et loci. Necessity is the law of time and place.

Necessitas excusat aut ext enuat delict urn in cap italibus, quad non operatur idem in civilibus. Necessity excuses or extenuates delinquency in capital cases, but does not have the same effect in civil cases.

Necessitasfacit licitum quod alias non est licitum. Necessity makes lawful what otherwise is unlawful.

Necessitas inducitprivilegiurn quoad juraprivata. Necessity creates a privilege with regard to private rights.

Necessitas non habet legem. Necessity has no law.

Necessitas publica major est quam privata. Public necessity is greater than private necessity.

Necessitas quod cogit defendit. Necessity defends what it compels.

Necessitas sub lege non continetur, quia quad alias non est licitum necessitasfacit licitum. Necessity is not restrained by law; since what otherwise is not lawful necessity makes lawful.

Necessitas vincit legem. Necessity overcomes the law.

Necessitas vincit legem; legum vincula irridet. Necessity overcomes the law; it laughs at the fetters of laws.

Nec regi bus infinita aut liberapotestas. The power that is given to kings is neither unlimited nor free. Tacitus, Germania 1.7.

Nec super eum ibimus, necsupereurn mittemus, nisiperlegale judicium parium suoruin. Nor shall we go upon him, nor send upon him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers; we will not go against him or send against him except by the lawful judgment of his peers. • This language appears in Magna Carta, ch. 39.

Nec tempus nec locus occurrit regi. Neither time nor place thwarts the king.

Nec veniam effuso sanguine casus ha bet. Where blood has been spilled, the case is unpardonable.

Nec veniam, laeso numine, casus ha bet. Where the Divinity has been insulted, the case is unpardonable.

Nefarium estperformulas legis laqueos innectere innocentibus. It is vicious to lay snares for the innocent through forms of law.

Nefictio plus valeat in casuficto quam veritas in casu vero. A fiction should be of no more value in a fictitious case than truth in a real case.

Negatio conclusion is est error in lege. The denial of a conclusion is error in law.

Negatio destruit negationem, et ambaefaciunt affirmationem. A negative destroys a negative, and both make an affirmative.

Negatio duplex est affirmatio. A double negative is an affirmative.

Negatio non potestprobari. Denial (or negation) cannot be proved.

Negligentia semper habet infortuniam comitem. Negligence always has misfortune for a companion.

Ne impediatur legatio. May the legation not be impeded. Ne in crastinum quod possis hodie. Put not off until tomorrow what you can do today.

Nejudex ultra petita partium. May the judge not award beyond the demands of the parties.

Ne licitatorem venditor apponat. The seller should not appoint a bidder.

Neminem laedit qui jure suo utitur. A person who exercises his own rights injures no one.

Neminem oportet esse sapientiorem legi bus. No one ought to be wiser than the laws.

Nemini hora est bona Ut flOfl alicui sit mala. The hour is good for no one that is not bad for someone. Publilius Syrus.

Nemini In allum plus licetquam concessum est legi bus. No one is allowed more against another than is conceded by the laws.

Nemo ad litus mans accedereprohibetur. No one is prohibited from approaching the seashore. Justinian Inst. 2.1.1.

Nemo adinittendus est inhabilitare seipsum. No one is allowed to incapacitate himself.

Nemo agit in seipsum. No one acts against himself.

Nemo alienae rei, sine satisdatione, defensor idoneus intelligitur. No one is considered a competent defender of another’s property, without security.

Nemo alieno nomine lege agerepotest. No one can sue at law in the name of another.

Nemo aliquam partem recte intelligerepotest, antequam totum iterum atque iterumperlegenit. No one can properly understand any part of a thing until he has read through the whole again and again.

Nemo allegans suam turpitudinem audiendus est. No one testifying to his own wrong is to be heard as a witness.

Nemo auditurpropriam turpitudinem allegans. No one is heard when alleging his own wickedness; no one can be heard whose claim is based on his own disgraceful behavior.

Nemo bis in peniculum yen jet pro eodem delicto. No one will come twice into danger for the same crime.

Nemo bis punitur pro eodem delicto. No one is punished twice for the same offense.

Nemo bis vexari pro (una et) eadem causa. May no one be troubled twice for (one and) the same cause.

Nemo cogitationispoenanipatitur. No one suffers punishment for his thoughts.

Nemo cogitur rem suam vendere, etiam justo pretio. No one is bound to sell his property, even for a just price.

Nemo coinmodum caperepotest de injuria sua propria. No one can derive benefit from his own wrong.

Nemo condemnari debet Inauditus nec sum monitus. No one should be condemned unheard or unsummoned.

Nemo contra factum suum (propnium) venirepotest. No one can contradict his own deed. 2 Co. Inst. 66.

Nemo damnumfacit, nisi qui idfecit quod facere jus non ha bet. No one does damage except the person who did what he has no right to do.

Nemo dare potest quod non ha bet. No one can give that which he does not have.

Nemo dat qui non ha bet. No one gives who does not possess.

Nemo dat quod non ha bet. No one gives what he does not have; no one transfers (a right) that he does not possess. • According to this maxim, no one gives a better title to property than he himself possesses. A variation of this maxim is Nemo dat qui non ha bet (no one gives who does not have).

Neino debet aliena jactura locupletari. No one ought to be enriched by another’s loss.

Nemo debet bispunini pro uno delicto; quod Deus non agit Ins in id ipsum. No one should be punished twice for one crime, as God does not act twice against that very thing. 4 Coke 118.

Nemo debet bis vexari pro eadem causa. No one should be twice troubled for the same cause.

Nemo debet bis vexani pro una et eadem causa. No one ought to be twice troubled for one and the same cause.

Nemo debet Ins vexari, si constet curiae quod sit pro una et eadem causa. No one ought to be twice troubled, if it appears to the court that it is for one and the same cause of action.

Neino debet essejudex in propnia causa. No one should be judge in his own cause.

Nemo debet esse testis in sua propnia causa. No one ought to be a witness in his own cause.

Nemo debetexalieno damno lucrarl. No one should be enriched out of the loss sustained by another.

Nemo debet immiscere se rei ad se nihil pertinenti. No one should involve himself in a thing that in no respect concerns him.

Nemo debet immiscere se rel alienae ad se nihilpertinenti. No one should interfere in-another’s business that does not at all concern him.

Nemo debet in communione invitus teneni. No one should be retained in a partnership against his will.

Nemo debet locupletari aliena jactura. No one ought to be enriched at another’s expense.

Nemo debet locupletani ex altenius incommodo. No one ought to be enriched out of another’s disadvantage.

Nemo debet rem suam sine factu aut defectu suo amittere. No one should lose his property without his own act or negligence.

Nemo de domo sua ext rahi potest. No one can be dragged (taken by force) from his own house. Dig. 50.17.103.

Nemo duobus utatur officils. No one should exercise two offices.

Nemo ejusdem tenementi simulpotest esse haeres et dominus. No one can be both heir and owner of the same land at the same time.

Nemo enim aliquam partem recte intelligere possit antequam totum iterum atque iterum perlegerit. No one may be able rightly to understand one part before he has again and again read through the whole.

Nerno enim invitus compellitur ad communionem. For no one is ever forced into joint ownership against his will. Dig. 12.6.26.4; 2 Bi. Corn. 185.

Nemo est haeres viventis. No one is an heir of someone living.

Nemo est supra leges. No one is above the laws.

Nemo ex alterius detrimentofieri debet locupletior. No one ought to be made rich out of another person’s injury.

Nerno ex alterius facto praegravari debet. No one should be burdened by the act of another.

Nemo ex consilio obligatur. No one is bound for the advice he gives.

Nemo ex dolo suo prop rio relevetur aut auxilium capiat. Let no one be relieved or gain advantage by his own fraud.

Nemo ex his qui negantse debereprohibituretiarn alia defensione uti nisi lex impedit. No one who denies they are indebted is prohibited from using any other defense as well, unless the law prevents it. Dig. 50.17.43.

Nemo exproprio dab consequituractionern. No one acquires a right of action from his own wrong (or deception).

Nemo ex suo delicto meliorern suam conditionemfacere potest. No one can improve his condition by his own wrong.

Neniofactum a se alienum tenetur scire. No one is bound to know an act or deed that is alien to him (or has nothing to do with him).

Nemoforestam ha bet nisi rex. Forests belong to no one but the king.

Nemofuit repente turpissimus. No one has become utterly vile in an instant. Juvenal, Satire 2.83.

Nemo habetur agere do Jose qui jure Se utitur. No one is held to act fraudulently who acts in exercise of his rights.

Nemo inaud it us condemnari debet, si non sit contumax. No one ought to be condemned unheard, unless for contempt. • This maxim is sometimes written Nemo inauditus nec insummonitus condemnari debet, Si non sit con tumax (meaning “no one should be condemned unheard and unsummoned, unless for contempt”).

Nemo in communionepotest invitus detineri. No one can be held (to act) in common against his will; no one can be forced to remain in common ownership against his will.. This maxim states the premise that a coowner can always insist on the division of the property owned.

Nemo in propria causa testis esse debet. No one can be a witness in his own cause.

Neniojus sibi dicerepotest. No one can give judgment for himself.

Nemo bocupletaripotest cum alterius iactura. Nobody can be made rich at the expense of another.

Nemo militans Deo implicetur seculari bus negotiis. No one warring for God should be troubled by secular business.

Nemo mon potest pro parte testatus pro parte intestatus. No one can die partly testate and partly intestate (under Roman law).

Nemo monituruspraesuinitur mentiri. No one at the point of death is presumed to lie.

Nemo nascitur artifex. No one is born an expert. • Wisdom in the law is acquired only through diligent study. Co. Litt. 97b.

Nemopatriam in qua natus est exuere, nec ligeantiae debiturn ejurarepossit. No one can cast off his native land or refuse the obligation of allegiance to it.

Nerno plus commodi haeredi suo relin quit quam ipse habuit. No one leaves a greater asset to his heir than he had himself.

Nemo plus juris ad alienum transferrepotest quam ipse ha beret. No one can transfer to another a greater right than he himself might have. Dig. 50.17.54.

Nemopotest contra recordum verifi care per patniam. No one can verify by the country against a record. • Certain matters of record cannot be contested in court. 2 Co. Inst. 380.

Nemopotest episcopo mandarepraeter regem. No one can give a mandate to a bishop except the king.

Nemo potest esse dominus et haeres. No one can be both owner and heir.

Nemo potest esse simul actor et judex. No one can be at the same time suitor and judge.

Nemopotest esse tenens et dominus. No one can be at the same time tenant and landlord (of the same tenement). Nemopotest exuerepatriam. No one can cast off his own country.

Nemo potestfacere per alium quod per se non potest. No one can do through another what he cannot do by himself.

Nemo pot est facere per obliquum quod non potestfacere per directum. No one can do indirectly what he cannot do directly.

Nemopotestgladiipotestam sibi datam vel cujus alterius coercitionis ad alium transferre. No one can transfer to another a power of the sword that has been given to hun, or any other power to compel.

Nemo potest immittere in alienurn. No one can invade (or send anything into) another’s property.

Nemopotest mu tare consilium suum in alterius injuniam. No one can change his purpose to the injury of another.

Nemo potest nisi quad dejurepotest. No one is able to do a thing, unless he can do it lawfully.

Nemo potest plus juris ad abium transferre quam ipse ha bet. No one can transfer to another a greater right than he himself (actu1ly) has. Co. Litt. 309.

Nemopotestpraecise cogi adfactum. No one can be compelled to perform a specific act. • The effect of this maxim is that an order of specific performance is not available.

Nemopotest renunciare junipublico. No one can renounce a public right.

Nemopotestsibi debere. No one can owe to himself.

Nemo potest sibi mutare causam possessionis. No one can change for himself the cause of his possession.

Nemopraedo est quipretium numeravit. No one is a robber who has paid the price.

Nemopraesens nisi intelligat. One is not present unless he understands.

Nemopraesumituralienamposteritatem suaepraetullsse. No one is presumed to have preferred another’s posterity to his own.

Nemo praesumitur donare. No one is presumed to make a gift.

Nemo praesumitur donare veb suum perdere. Nobody is presumed to give a donation or to lose what is his own.

Nemo praesumitur esse immemor suae aeternae salutaffs, et maxime in articulo mortis. No one is presumed to be forgetful of his eternal welfare, and especially at the point of death.

Nemopraesumitur ludere in extremis. No one is presumed to trifle at the point of death.

Nemopraesumitur malus. No one is presumed to be bad.

Nemo prohibeturplures negotiationes sive artes exercere. No one is prohibited from exercising several kinds of business or arts.

Nemoprohibeturpluribus defensionibus uti. No one is forbidden to employ several defenses.

Nemoprudenspunit utpraeterita revocefztur, sed utfutura praeveniantur. No one who is wise gives punishment so that past deeds may be revoked, but so that future deeds may be prevented.

Nemo punitur pro alieno delicto. No one is punished for the crime or wrong of another.

Nemo punitur sine injuria, facto, seu defalta. No one is punished unless for some wrong, act, or default.

Nemo qui condemnarepotest absolvere non potest. No one who can condemn is unable to acquit.

Nemo redditum invito domino percipere etpossiderepotest. No one can take and enjoy the rent without consent of the owner.

Nemo rem suam amittat, nisi exfacto aut delicto suo, aut neglectu. No one should lose his own property, except by his own deed, transgression, or neglect.

Nemo sibi essejudex vel suis jus dicere debet. No one ought to be his own judge or to administer justice in cases where his relations are concerned.

Nemo sine actione experitur, et hoc non sine breve sive Iibello conventionali. No one goes to trial without an action, and no one can bring an action without a writ or bill.

Nemo tenetur ad imp ossibile. No one is bound to an impossibility.

Nemo tenetur armare adversarium contra Se. No one is bound to arm his adversary against himself.

Nemo tenetur divinare. No one is bound to foretell the future.

Nemo tenetur edere instrumenta contra Se. No one is bound to produce writings against himself.

Nemo tenetur informare qui nescit sed quisquis scire quod informat. No one who is ignorant of a thing is bound to give information of it, but everyone is bound to know what he gives information of.

Nemo teneturjurare in suam turpitudinem. No one is bound to swear to his own criminality.

Nemo teneturprodere seipsum. No one is bound to betray himself. • In other words, no one can be compelled to incriminate himself.

Nemo teneturseipsum accusare. No one is bound to accuse himself. • This is a formulation of the privilege against self-incrimination. In good Latin, se ipsum appears as two words; but in law the phrase is usually combined to one (seipsum).

Nemo tenetur seipsum infortuniis etpericuhs exponere. No one is bound to expose himself to misfortune and dangers. Nemo tenetur seipsum prodere. No one is bound to betray himself.

Nemo unquam judicet in se. Let no one ever be a judge in his own cause.

Nemo unquam vir magnusfuit sine aliquo divino afflatu. No one was ever a great man without some divine inspiration.

Nemo videturfraudare eos qui sciunt et consentiunt. No one is considered as deceiving those who know and consent.

Ne quaere litem cum licetfugere. Don’t ask for a lawsuit when you can avoid it.

Neque enim lex aequior ulla est quam necis artifices arte perire sua. There is no law more just than that those who devise death (for others), perish by their own device. Ovid, Ars Amatoria 1.655-6.

Neque leges neque senatus consulta ita scribi possunt ut omnes casus qui quandoque inciderint comprehendanfur; sed sufficit ea quae plerumque accidunt continen. Neither laws nor acts of senate can be so written as to include all cases that have happened at any time; it is sufficient that those things that usually occur are encompassed. Dig. 1.3.10. pr.

Ne quid in locopublico vel itinereflat. Let nothing be done (put or erected) in a public place or way. • The title of an interdict in the Roman law.

Nescis tu quam meticulosa res sit ire ad judicem. You don’t know how frightening it is to go before a judge. Plautus, Mostellaria 5.1.58.

Ne te ipsum praecipites in discrimen. Don’t cast yourself into jeopardy. (Cleobulus: M ofioidv&voc fuo)

Nigrum nun quam excedere debet rubrum. The black should never go beyond the red. • That is, the text of a statute should never be read in a sense more comprehensive than the rubric, or title.

Nihil agitur si quid agendum superest. Nothing is done if anything remains to be done.

Nihil aliudpotest rex quam quod dejure potest. The king can do nothing but what he can do legally; the king can do nothing except by law.

Nihil callidit ate stultius. Nothing is more foolish than cun-. ning.

Nihil consensui tam contrarium est quam..yls atque metus. Nothing is so opposite to consent as force and fear.

Nihil cuiquam expedit quod per leges non licet. That which is contrary to law cannot be profitable to any one.

Nihil dat quf non ha bet. A person gives nothing who has nothing.

Nihil de re accrescit ei qui nihil in re quando jus accresceret ha bet. Nothing from a property accrues to a person who had no interest in the property when the right accrued. Co. Litt. 188.

Nihil dictum quod non dictum prius. Nothing is said that was not said before.

Nihil est enim liberale quod non idern justum. For there is nothing generous that is not at the same time just.

Nihil est magis rationi consentaneum quam eodem modo quodque dissolvere quo confla turn est. Nothing is more consonant to reason than that everythüg should be dissolved in the same way as it was made.

Nihilfacit error nominis cum de corpore constat. An error in the name is nothing when there is certainty as to the person.

Nihil fit a tempore, quamquarn nihil non fit in temp ore. Nothing is done by time, although everything is done in time. Grotius, De lure Belli ac Pacis 2.4.1.

Nihil habet forum ex scena. The court has nothing to do with what is not before it.

Nihil honestum essepotest quod just itia vacat. Nothing is honest which lacks justice. Cicero, De Officiis 19.62.

Nihil infra regnum subditos magis conservat in tranquilitate et concordia quam debita legum administ ratio. Nothing better preserves the subjects of the realm in tranquillity and concord than a due administration of the laws. 2 Co.Inst. 158.

Nihil iniquius quam aequitatem nimis intendere. Nothing is more unjust than to extend equity too far.

Nihil in lege intolerabilius est (quam) eandem rem diverso jure censeri. Nothing in law is more intolerable than that the same case should be subject (in different courts) to different views of the law.

Nih ii magis justum est quam quad necessarium est. Nothing is more just than what is necessary.

Nihil nequam estpraesumendum. Nothing wicked is to be presumed.

Nihilperfectum est dum aliquid restat agendum. Nothing is perfect while something remains to be done.

Nihil peti potest ante id tempus quo per rerum naturam persolvipossit. Nothing can be demanded before the time when, in the nature of things, it can be paid.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem. We have no power against truth.

Nihilpraescribitur nisi quod possidetur. There is no prescription for what is not possessed.

Nihil quod est contra rationem est licitum. Nothing that is against reason is lawful.

Nihil quod est inconveniens est licitum. Nothing that is improper is lawful. Co. Litt. 66a.

Nihil quod est licitum est inconveniens. Nothing that is lawful is improper.

Nihil simile est idem. Nothing similar is identical.

Nihil siniul inventum est etperfectum. Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment.

Nihil tam absurdum dici potest ut non dicatur a philosopho. There is (or can be) nothing so absurd but that it may have been uttered by a philosopher. Cicero, De Divinatione 2.119.

Nihil tam conveniens est naturali aequitati quam unumquodque dissolvi eo ligarnine quo ligatum est. Nothing is so consonant with natural equity as that each thing should be dissolved by the same means as it was bound.

Nihil tam conveniens est naturali aequitati quam voluntatern domini volentis rem suam in alium transferre ratam haberi. Nothing is more consistent with natural equity than to confirm the will of an owner who desires to transfer his property to another.

Nihil tam naturale est quam eo genere quidque dissolvere quo colligatum est. Nothing is so natural as that an obligation should be dissolved by the same principle by which it was contracted.

Nih ii tam naturale est quam eo genere quidque dissolvere quo colligatum est; ideo verborum obligatio verbis tollitur; nudi consensus obligatio con trarlo consensu dissolvitur. Nothing is so natural as to dissolve anything in the way in which it was bound together; therefore the obligation of words is taken away by words; the obligation of mere consent is dissolved by the contrary consent.

Nihil tam proprium imperio quam legi bus vivere. Nothing is so becoming to authority as to live according to the law.

Nil agit exemplum litern quod lite resolvit. A precedent accomplishes nothing if it settles one dispute by raising another.

Nil consensul tam con trarium est, qui ac bonaefidei hidicia sustinet, quam vis atque metus. There is nothing so contrary to consent, which sustains decisions of good faith, as force or fear. Dig. 50.11.116.

Nilfacit error nominis cum de corpore vel persona con- stat. An error in the name is immaterial when the body or person is certain.

Nil similius insano quam inebrius. Nothing more strongly resembles a madman than a drunken man.

Nil sine prudentifecit ratione vetustas. Antiquity did nothing without a good reason.

Nil tam proprium imperii ac libertatis quam legi bus vivere. Nothing is so characteristic of dominion and liberty as to live in accordance with law.

Nil temere novandum. Nothing should be rashly changed.

Nil utile aut honestum quod legi bus contrarium. Nothing is useful or honorable that is contrary to law.

Nimia certitudo certitudinem ipsam destruit. Too great certainty destroys certainty itself.

Nimia subtilitas injure rep robatur. Too much subtlety in law is condemned.

Nimia subtilitas injure repro batur, et talis certitudo certitudinem confundit. Too great subtlety is disapproved of in law, and such certainty confounds certainty.

Nimlum altercando veritas arnittitur. By too much quarreling truth is lost.

Nobiles magisplectunturpecunia, plebes vera in corpore. The higher classes are more punished in money, but the lower in person.

Nobiles sunt qui armagentilitia antecessorum suorum proferrepossunt. The gentry are those who are able to produce the heraldic arms of their own ancestors.

Nobiliores et benigniores praesumptiones in dubiis sunt praeferendae. When in doubt, the more generous and kind presumptions are to be preferred.

Nobilitas est duplex, superior et inferior. There are two sorts of nobility the higher and the lower.

Nomen est quasi rei notamen. A name is, as it were, the distinctive sign (or signifier) of a thing.

Nomen non suffi cit si res non sit dejure aut defacto. A name does not suffice if the thing does not exist by law orbyfact.

Nomina si nescis, peril cognitio rerum. If you do not know the names of things, the knowledge of things themselves perishes.

Nomina si nescis, pent cognitio rerum; et nomina si perdas, certe distinctio rerurn perditur. If you do not know the names of things, the knowledge of things themselves perishes; and, if you lose the names, the distinction of the things is certainly lost.

Nomina sunt mutabilia, res autem immobiles. Names are mutable, but things immutable.

Nomina sunt notae rerum. Names are the marks of things.

Nomina sunt symbola rerum. Names are the symbols of things.

Non accipi debent verba in demonstrationemfalsam, quae competunt in limitationem veram. Words ought not to be accepted to import a false description when they are consistent with a true definition.

Non adimplenti non est adimplendum. It is not necessary to fulfill one’s obligation to a person who fails to fulfill his own.

Non alienat qui dumtaxat omittitpossessionem. He does not alienate who merely gives up possession. Dig. 50.17.119.

Non allo modo puniatur aliquis, quam secundum quod se ha bet condemnatio. A person may not lIe punished other- wise than according to what the sentence enjoins.

Non aliter a sign ifi catione verborum recedi oportet quam cum inanifestum est aliud sensisse testatorem. We must depart from the (ordinary) significance of words only when it is evident that the testator had a different understanding. Dig. 32.69. pr.

Non auditurperire volens. One who wishes to perish is not heard.

Non autem deperditae dicuntursi postea recuperantur. Things are not said to be lost that are afterwards recovered.

Non bene conducti venduntperjuria testes. Witnesses who are engaged for no good reason put up their perjury for sale. Ovid, Amores 1.10.

Non bis in idem (or imperative, ne bis in idem). Not twice for the same thing. • That is, a person shall not be twice tried for the same crime. This maxim of the civil law expresses the same principle as the familiar rule against double jeopardy.

Non capitur qui jus publicum sequitur. One who follows public law is not liable. Dig. 50.17.116.1.

Non concedantur citationes priusquam exprimatur super qua refieri decet citatio. Summonses should not be granted before it is expressed on what ground a summons should be issued.

Non consent it qui errat. A person who errs does not consent.

Non creditur referenti, nisi constet de relato. The reference is not to be credited, unless the thing referred to is proved.

Non crimen perse nequeprivatum damnum, sedpublicum malum, leges spectant. The laws do not regard the crime in itself or as a private loss, but as a public evil.

Non dat qui contra leges dat. He gives nothing who gives contrary to law.

Non dat qui non ha bet. A person who does not have does not give.

Non debeo melioris condition is esse quam auctor meus a quojus in me transit. I cannot be in a better condition (as to my title) than the grantor whose title comes to me. Dig. 50.17.175.

Non deberetalii nocere quod inter alios actum esset. A person ought not to be injured by what has taken place between other parties.

Non debet actori licere quod reo non permittitur. What is not permitted to the defendant ought not to be allowed to the plaintiff.

Non debet adduci exceptio ejus rei cujuspetitur dissolutio. An exception (or plea) should not be made on the very matter of which a determination is sought (in the case at hand).

Non debet alii nocere quod inter alios acturn est. A person ought not to be pre)udiced by what has been done between others.

Non debet alteri per alterum iniqua conditio inferri. An unfair condition ought not to be brought on one person by the act of another.

Non debet cui plus licet quod minus est non licere. A person who is permitted to do the greater thing ought not to be forbidden to do the lesser.

Non debet dici tendere in praejudicium ecclesiasticae liberatatis quod pro rege et republica necessarium videtur. What seems necessary for the king and the state ought not to be said to tend to the prejudice of spiritual liberty

Non decet homines dedere causa non cognita. It is unbecoming to surrender people when no cause has been shown.

Non decipitur qui scit se decipi. A person is not deceived who knows himself to be deceived.

Non defendere videtur qui, praesens, negat se defrndere. One who refuses to defend himself, though present (in court), is regarded as having no defense.

Non definitur injure quid sit conatus. What an attempt is, is not defined in law.

Non differunt quae concordant re, tametsi non in verbis iisdem. Those things that agree in substance, even if not in the same words, do not differ.

Non dubitatur, etsi specialiter venditor evictionem non prom iserit, re evicta, ex empty competere actionem. It is certain that even if the vendor has not given a special guarantee, an action ex empto lies against him, if the purchaser is evicted.

Non effi cit affectus nisi sequatur effectus. The intention amounts to nothing unless some effect follows.

Non enim tam auctoritatis in disputando quam rationis momenta quaerenda sunt. For in debate (or discussion) it is not so much the weight of authority that should be sought after as the force of reason. Cicero, De Natura Deorum 1.10.

Non erit alia lex Romae, alia Athaenis; alia nuhc, alia post hac; sed et omnes gentes, et otnni tempore, una lex, etsempiterna, et immortalis con tinebit. There will not be one law at Rome, another at Athens; one law now, another hereafter; but one eternal and immortal law shall bind together all nations throughout all time.

Non est arctius vinculum inter homines quamjusjurandum. There is no closer (or firmer) link among men than an oath.

Non est certandum de regulis juris. There is nodisputing rules of law.

Non est cogendus quis ad substituendum. No one is compelled to substitute another in his own place.

Non est consonum rationi quod cognitio accessorii in curia christianitatis impediatur, ubi cognitio causae principalis ad forum ecclesiasticum nosciturpertinere. It is unreasonable that the cognizance of an accessory matter should be impeded in an ecclesiasticaicourt, when the cognizance of the principal cause is admitted to appertain to an ecclesiastical court.

Non est deleganda reipublicae cura personae non idoneae. The care (or safe keeping) of the republic must not be delegated to a person not suitable.

Non estdisputandum contra principia negantem. There is no disputing against a person who denies first principles.

Non est judex qui judicat minus quam pet ita partium. He is not a judge who decides less than what is requested from the parties.

Non est lex sed servitus, ad ea teneri quibus non consenseris. It is not law but servitude to be bound by what you have not consented to.

Non est novum utpriores leges ad posteriores trahantur. It is not an innovation to adapt earlier laws to later ones. Dig. 1.3.26.

Non est recedendum a corn muni observantia. There should be no departure from a common observance.

Non est regula quinfallat. There is no rule that may not deceive (or disappoint).

Non est reus nisi mens sit rea. A person is not guilty unless his mind is guilty.

Non estsingulis concedendum quod per magistraturn pub- lice possitfieri, ne occaslo sit majoris tumult usfaciendi. That is not to be conceded to private persons which can be publicly done by the magistrate, lest it be the occasion of greater tumult.

Non exemplis sed legthusjudicandum est. Not by examples but by the laws must judgment be made.

Non ex opinionibus singulorum, sed cx communi usu, nomina exaudiri debent. Names of things ought to be understood according to common usage, not according to the opinions of individuals.

Non facias malum ut mdc veniat bonum. You are not to do evil that good may come of it.

Non impedit clausula derogatoria quo minus ab eadem pa- testate res dissolvantur a qua constituuntur. A derogatory clause does not prevent things from being dissolved by the same power by which they were originally made.

Non in legendo sed in intelligendo leges consistunt. The laws consist not in reading but in understanding.

Non in tabulis est jus. It is not in books that the law is to be found.

Non jus ex regula, sed regula ex jure. The law does not arise from the rule (or maxim), but the rule from the law.

Nonjus, sed seisinafacitstipitem. Not right, but seisin, makes a stock (from which the inheritance must descend).

Non licet quod dispendio licet. That which is permitted only at a loss is not permitted.

Non nasci et naturn moriparia sunt. Not to be borp and to be born dead are equivalent.

Non obligat lex nisi promulgata. A law is not binding unless it has been promulgated.

Non observataforma, infertur adnullatio actus. When the form has not been observed, an annulment of the act is inferred.

Non officit affectus zisi sequatur effectus. Sed in act rocioribus delictispunitur affectus, licet non sequatur effectus. The intention is not an offense unless an effect follow. But in the most atrocious crimes the intention is punished, although no effect follow.

Non offi cit conatusnisisequatur effectus. An attempt does not harm unless a consequence follows.

Non omne damnum inducit injuriam. Not every loss produces an injury (i.e., gives a right to action).

Non omne quod licet honestum est. Not everything that is lawful is honorable; not everything that is allowable is morally right.

Non omnium quae a majoribus nostris constituta sunt ratio reddipotest. Reason cannot always be given for the institutions of our ancestors.

Non pertinet ad judicem secularem cognoscere de us quae sunt mere spiritualia annexa. It belongs not to the secular judge to take cognizance of things that are merely spiritual.

Non possessori incumbit necessitas probandi possessiones ad se pertinere. It is not incumbent on the possessor of property to prove that his possessions belong to him.

Non potest adduci exceptio ejusdem rei cujus pet itur dissolutio. An exception cannot be brought on the same matter whose determination is at issue (in the action at hand).

Non potest pro ban quod pro batum non relevat. That cannot be proved which, when pfoved, is irrelevant.

Non potest quis sine brevi agere. No one can sue without a writ.

Non potest rex gratiam facere cum injuria et damno aliorum. The king cannot confer a favor that occasions injury and loss to others.

Non potest rex subditum renitentem onerare impositionibus. The king cannot load a subject with impositions against his consent.

Non potest videri desisse ha be re qui nun quam habuit. A person cannot be considered as having ceased to have a thing who never had it.

Non praestat impedimentum quod dejure non sortitur effrctum. A thing that has no effect in law is not an impediment.

Non quod dictum est, sed quodfactum est, inspicitur. Not what has been said but what has been done is regarded.

Non quod voluit testator, sed quod dixit in testamento inspicitur. Not what the testator wanted, but what he said in the will, is regarded.

Non recusat ad minora dimittere lex. The law does not refuse to descend to the lesser details.

Non refert an quis assensum suumpraefert -verbis an rebus ipsis etfactis. It is immaterial whether a person gives assent by words or by acts themselves and deeds.

Non refert quid ex aequipollentibus fiat. It does not matter which of two equivalents happens.

Non refert quid notum sit judici, si notum non sit informa judicii. It matters not what is known to the judge if it is not known to him judicially.

Non refert verbis anfactisfit revocatio. It does not matter whether a revocation is made by words or by acts.

Non respondebit minor, nisi in causa dotis, et hoc profayore doti. A minor shall not answer except in a case of dower, and here in favor of dower.

Non solent quae abundant vitiare scripturas. Superfluous expressions do not usually vitiate writings.

Non solet deterior conditiofieni corum qui litem con testati sunt quam si non, sed plerumque melior. The condition of those who contest a suit does not ordinarily become worse than if they had not, but for the most part better. Dig. 50.17.86.

Non solum quid licet sed quid est conveniens considerandum, quia nihil quod inconveniens est licitum. Not only what is permitted but what is proper is to be considered, because nothing improper is lawful.

Non sunt longa ubi nihil est quod demerepossis. There is no prolixity where there is nothing that you can omit.

Non ternere credere est nervus sapientae. Not to believe rashly is the sinew of wisdom.

Non valebitfelonisgeneratio nec ad haereditatein paternam vet maternam; si autem ante feloniarn generationemfecerit, tails generatio succedit in haereditate patris vet matris a quo non fueritfelonia perpetrata. The offspring of a felon cannot succeed either to a maternal or paternal inheritance; but if the felon had offspring before the felony, the offspring may succeed to the inheritance of the father or mother by whom no feloiiy was committed.

Non valet confirmatio, nisi ille, qui confirmat, sit in possessione rei vet juris undefieri debet confirrnatio; et eodem modo, nisi ille cui confi rmatio fit sit inpossessione. Confirmation is not valid unless the person who confirms is in possession either of the thing or of the right of which confirmation is to be made, and, in like manner, unless that person to whom confirmation is made is in possession.

Non valet donatio nisi subsequatur traditio. A gift is not valid unless delivery (or transference) follows.

Non valet exceptio ejusdem rei cujuspetitur dissolutio. An exception based on the very matter of which the determination is sought is not valid.

Non valet impedimentum quod dejure non sortitur effecturn. An impediment that does not derive its effect from the law has no force.

Non verbis sed ipsis rebus leges imponirnus. Not on words, but on affairs themselves do we impose laws.

Non videntur qui errant consentire. They who err are not considered as consenting.

Non videntur rem amittere quibus prop na non fuit. They are not considered as losing a thing if it was not their own.

Non videtur cepisse qui, per exceptionem, a pet itione removetur. He is not regarded as having obtained his right who is defeated by an exception.

Non videtur consensum retinuisse si quis ex praescripto minantis aliquod immutavit. If a person has changed anything at the demand of a party threatening, he is not considered to have maintained his consent.

Non videturperfecte cujusque Id esse quod ex casu aufrrri potest. A thing is not considered completely to belong to anyone if it can be taken from him by chance (or occasion).

Non videtur quisquam id capere quod ei necesse est alil restituere. One is not considered to acquire any property in a thing that he is bound to restore td another. Dig. 50. 17. 51.

Non videtur vim facere qui jure suo utitur et ordinaria actione experitur. A person is not judged to use force who exercises his own right and proceeds by ordinary action.

Noscitur a sociis. It is known from its associates.

Noscitur ex socio qui non cognoscitur ex Se. A person who is not known for himself is known from his associate.

Nos enim non verbis sed ipsis rebus leges imponimus. Not upon words but upon the things themselves do we impose laws. Just. Codex 6.43.2.3.

Not itia dicitur a noscendo; et not itia non debet claudicare. Notice is named from knowledge; and notice ought not to limp (that is, be imperfect).

Nova constitutiofuturisformam imponere debet, non praeteritis. A new enactment ought to impose form on what is to come, not on what ia past. • A new regulation should not apply retroactively but from its enactment. 2 Co. Inst. 292.

Nova tb non praesumitur. A novation is not presumed.

Novitas non tam utilitateprodestquam novitateperturbat. Novelty does not as much benefit by its utility as it disturbs by its novelty.

Novumjudicium non dat novum jus, sed declarat antiquurn. A new judgment does not make a new right, but declares the old.

Novum judicium non dat ndvurn jus, sed declarat antiquurn; quia judicium estjuris dictum, et per judicium jus est noviter revel atum quod diufuit velatum. A new judgment does not make a new right, but declares the old; because adjudication is the declaration of a right, and by adjudication the right is newly revealed which has long been hidden. 10 Coke 42.

Nuda pactio obligationern non pant. A naked agreement (i.e., without consideration) does not create an obligation. Dig. 2.14.7.4.

Nuda ratio et nuda pactio non ligant aliquenz debitorem. Bare reason and naked agreement do not bind any debtor.

Nudum pactum est ubi nulia subest causapraeter conventionens; sed ubi subest causa,fit obligatio, etparit actionern. Naked agreement (nudum pactum) is where there is no consideration besides the agreement; but when there is a consideration, an obligation is created and it gives a right of action.

Nudum pactum ex quo non oritur actio. Naked agreement (nudum pactum) is that from which no action arises.

Nudum pacturn inefficax ad agendurn. A naked agreement is insufficient for an action.

Nugae seria ducent in mala. Trifles lead to serious mischief. Horace Epistle ad Pisones (Ars Poetica) 451-2.

Nut charter, nut vente, ne nul done vault perpetualment, si le donor n’est seise al temps de contracts de deux dro its, sc. del droit de possession et del droit de properite. No grant, no sale, no gift, is valid forever unless the donor, at the time of the contract, is seised of two rights, namely, the right of possession and the right of property.

Nulla curia quae recordum non habet potest imponere finem neque aliquem mandare careen; quia ista spectant tan tummodo ad curias de reçordo. No court that does not have a record can impose a fine or commit any person to prison; because those powers look only to courts of record.

Nulla emptio sine pretio esse potest. There can be no sale without a price.

Nullafalsa doctrina est quae non permisceat aliquid yentatis. No doctrine is so false but it may not be mixed up with some truth.

Nulla impossibilia aut inhonesta suntpraesumenda; vera autem et honesta etpossibilia. No impossible or dishonorable things are to be presumed; but things true, honor-. able, and possible.

Nulla lex, nulla iniunia. No law, no wrong.

Nullapactione effici potest ne doluspraestetur. No agreement is sufficient to effect that there be no liability for fraud. Dig. 2.14.27.3.

Nulla res vehementius rempublicam continet quamfides. Nothing sustains the republic more strongly than its credit. Cicero, De Officiis 2.24.84. • The maxim is often understood, “Nothing binds the republic together more.. than loyalty of its citizens.”

Nulla sasina, nulia terra. No fee (or seisin), no land.

Nuila unquam de morte hominis cunctatio longa est. No delay is ever (too) long when a man’s life is at stake. Juvenal, Satire 6.221.

Nulia virtus, nulla scientia locum suum et dignitatem conserva repotest sine modestla. Without moderation, no virtue, no knowledge can preserve its place and dignity

Nuile régle sans faute. There is no rule without fault.

Nulle terre sans seigneur. No land without a lord.

Nulli enim res sua servit jure servitutis. No one can have a servitude over his own property.

Nullius charta legi bus potest derogare. No one’s written deed can derogate from the laws.

Nuilius hominis auctoritas apud nos valere debet, Ut meliora non sequeremur si quis attulerit. The authority of no person ought to have (such) power among us that we should not follow better (opinions) if anyone presents them.

Nuili vendemas, nulli negabimus, aut differemus rectum vel just itiam. We shall sell to no one, deny to no one, or delay to no one, eqiaity or justice. • This language appeared in Magna Carta.

Nullum anarchia tnajus est malum. There is no evil greater than anarchy.

Nullum crimen majus est inobedientia. No crime is greater than disobedience.

Nullum crimen patitur is qul non pro hi bet cum prohibere non pot est. He who fails to prevent what he cannot prevent is guilty of no crime. Dig. 50.17.109.

Nulium damnum sine remedlo. There is no loss without a remedy.

Nullum exemplum est idem omnibus. No example is the same for all purposes.

Nullum iniquum estpraesumendum injure. Nothing unjust is to be presumed in law.

Nullum matrimonium, ibi nulia dos. No marriage, there no dower.

Nullum medicanienturn est idem omnibus. No medicine is the same (or equally effective) for all.

Nullum simile est idem. Nothing that is like andther is the same. . That is, no likeness is exactly identical.

Nuilum simile est idem nisi quatuorpedibus currit. Nothing similar is identical, unless it run on all fours.

Nuilum simile quatuorpedibus currit. No simile runs on four feet (on all fours). • No simile holds in every respect.

Nuilum tempus aut locus occurrit regi. No time or place bars the king.

Nullum tempus occurrit regi. No period of time bars the Crown; no length of time runs against the king. • This maxim expresses the idea that the king is not bound by any statute of limitations.

Nullum tempus occurrit reipublicae. No time runs against the commonwealth (or state).

Nullus alius quam rexpossit episcopo demandare inquisitionemfaciendarn. No other than the king can command the bishop to make an inquisition.

Nullus commodum caperepotest de injuria suapropria. No one can gain advantage by his own wrong.

Nulius debet agere de dolo, ubi alia actio subest. Where another form of action is given, no one ought to sue in the action de dolo.

Nullus dicitur accessorius post feloniam sed ilie qui novit principalemfeloniamfecisse, et ilium receptavit et cornfortavit. No one is called an accessory after the fact but that person who knew the principal to have committed a felony, and received and comforted him.

Nuilus diciturfelo principalis nisi actor aut qui praesens est, abettans aut auxilians actorem adfeloniamfaciendam. No one is called a principal felon except the party actually committing the felony, or the party who was present aiding and abetting the perpetrator in its commission.

Nulius idoneus testis in resua inteiligitur. No one is understood to be a competent witness in his own cause.

Nullusjus alienumforisfacere potest. No one can forfeit another’s right.

Nulius liber homo capiatur, aut imprisonetur. Let no free man be taken or imprisoned. • This expression derives from Magna Carta, ch. 39

Nuilus liber homo disseisieturde libero tenemento suo, nisi per legalejudiciumparium suorum, vel per legem terrae. No freeman shall be dispossessed of his freehold, save by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.

Nullus recedat e curia canceilaria sine rem edio. Let no one depart from the court of chancery without a remedy.

Nullus videtur doiofacere qui suo jure utitur. No one is to be regarded as acting by fraud who exercises his legal right.

Nul ne dolt s’enrichir aux depens des autres. No one ought to enrich himself at the expense of others.

Nuiprendra advantage de son tort demesne. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong.

Nul sans damage avera error ou attaint. No one shall have error or attaint unless there has been damage.

Numerus certus pro incerto ponitur. A certain number is substituted for one that is uncertain.

Nummus est mensura rerum commutandarum. Money is the measure of things that are to be exchanged.

Nun quam crescit expostfacto praeteriti delicti aestimatio. The valuation (or assessment of damage) for a past offense is never increased by what happens subsequently. Dig. 50.17.138.1.

Nun quam decurritur ad extraordinarium sed ubi deficit ordinarium. One never resorts to the extraordinary but when the ordinary fails.

Nunquamfictio sine lege. There is no fiction without law.

Nun quam nimis diciturquod nun quam satis dicitur. What is never sufficiently said is never said too much.

Nunquampraescribitur infalso. There is never prescription in case of falsehood (or forgery).

Nun quam res humanaeprospere succedunt ubi negliguntur divinae. Human affairs never prosper when divine ones are neglected.

Nuptias non concubitus sed consensus facit. Not sharing a bed but consent makes the marriage.

O

Obedientia est legis essentia. Obedience is the essence of the law.

Ob infamiam non solet juxta legem terrae aliquis per legem apparentem sepurgare, nisiprius convictus, vel confessus in curia. Faced with accusation (of a crime), it is not usual for a man to acquit himself by law of the land (by battle or ordeal) unless he has been previously convicted, or confessed in open court. Glanvil Book 14, ch.2.

Obtemperandum est consuetudini rationabili tan quam legi. A reasonable custom is to be obeyed like law.

Occultatio thesauri inventifraudulosa. The concealment of discovered treasure is fraudulent.

Occupantisfiunt derelicta. Things abandoned become the property of the (first) occupant.

Occupatio non pruecedit nisi in re terminata. Seizure does not proceed except in a resolved situation.

Oderunt peccare boni, virtutis amore; toderunt peccare mali, formidinepoenae. Good men hate sin through love of virtue; bad men, through fear of punishment. (Extention of Horace, Epist. 1.16.52.)

Odb et amorejudex careat. Let a judge be free from hatred and love.

Odiosa et inhonesta non sunt in legepraesumenda. Odious and dishonest acts are not to be presumed in law.

Odiosa non praesurnuntur. Odious things are not presumed.

Officiajudicialia non concedantur ante quam vacent. Judicial offices ought not to be granted before they are vacant.

Officia magistratus non debent esse venalia. The offices of magistrates ought not to be sold.

Offi cit conatus Si effectus sequatur. The attempt becomes of consequence if the effect follows.

Omne accessorium sequitur suum principale. Every accessory follows its principal.

Omne accessum sequitur suum principale. Every increase follows its principal.

Omne actum ab intentione agentis est judicandum; a voluntateprocedit causa vitii atque virtutis. Every act must be judged by the intention of the doer; the cause of vice and virtue proceeds from the will.

Omne crimen ebrietas et incendit et detegit. Drunkenness both inflames and reveals every crime.

Oinnejus aut consensus fecit, aut necessitas constituit, aut firmavit consuetudo. Every right 1as been derived from consent, established by necessity, or confirmed by custom:

Omnejus et omnis actio injuriarum temporefinita et circumscripta sunt. Every right and every action are limited and circumscribed by the time of the injuries.

Omne magis dignum trahit ad se minus dignum, quamvis minus dignum sit antiquius. Every worthier thing draws to it the less worthy, even if the less worthy is more ancient.

Omne magnum exemplum habet aliquid ex iniquo, quod publica utilitate compensatur. Every great example has some portion of evil, which is compensated by its public utility.

Omne majus continet in se minus. Every greater thing contains in itself the less.

Omne niajus dignum continet in se minus dignum. Every more worthy thing contains in itself the less worthy.

Officium nemini debet esse damnosum. An office ought to be injurious to no one.

Omissio eorum quae tacite insunt nihil opera tur. The omission of those things that are silently implied is of no consequence. 

Onine majus minus in se complectitur. Every greater thing embraces in itself the lesser.

Omne majus trahit ad se quod est minus. Every greater thing attracts to itself that which is less. Co. Litt. 43b.

Omne nimium verfitur in vitium. Every excess becomes a vice.

Omneprincipale tra hit ad se accessorium. Every principal thing draws to itself the accessory.

Omne quod solo inaedficatursolo cedit. Everything that is built on the soil belongs to the soil.

Omne sacramentum debet esse de certa scientia. Every oath ought to be founded on certain knowledge.

Omnes actiones in mundo infra certa tempora ha bent limitationem. All actions in the world are limited within certain periods.

Omnes bonos bonasque accurare addecet, suspicionem et culpam Ut ab se segregent. It behooves all good men and good women to take care that they keep themselves free of suspicion and blame. Plautus, Trinummus 41-2.

Omnes in defensionem reipublicae vita bonisque omnibus cives tenentur. All subjects are bound to defend the state with their lives and all their possessions.

Omnes licentiam habere his quae prose Indulta sunt renunciare. All have liberty to renounce these things that have been granted in their favor.

Omnesprudentes illa admittere solent quaeprobantur us qui in arte sua bene versati sunt. All prudent people are accustomed to admit those things that are approved by those who are skilled in their profession.

Omnes sorores sunt quasi unus haeres de una haereditate. All sisters are as it were one heir to one inheritance.

Omnes subditi sunt regis servi. All subjects are the king’s servants.

Omne testamentum morte consummatum est. Every will is consummated by death.

Omne verbum de ore fideli cadit in debitum. Every word sincerely spoken constitutes an obligation.

Omnia dat qui justa negat. One who denies what is just grants (his adversary) everything. Lucan, Pharsalia 1.348.

Omnia delicta in aperto leviora sunt. All crimes committed openly are considered lighter.

Omnia Deo grata, horn inibus utilia, reipublicae honesta, privatisjusta et commoda pro bant leges, etpro viribus cuique imponunt. All things pleasing to God, useful to men, honorable to the State, just and advantageous to private persons, the laws approve and impose upon each person according to his powers.

Omnia honeste et ordinefiant. Let all things be done honestly and in order.

Omnia libere et legaliterfacienda. All things should be done freely and legally.

Omnnia mala exempla bonis principiis orta sunt. All bad precedents have their origin in good beginnings.

Omnia praesumuntur contra spoliatorem. All presumptions are against one who wrongfully dispossesses another (a despoiler).

Omniapraesumuntur in odium spoliataris. All things are presumed in hatred of the spoliator.

Omnia praesumuntur legitimefacta donec pro betur in con trarium. All things are presumed to have been done lawfully until there is proof to contrary. 

Omniapraesumunturpro matrimonio. All things are presumed in favor of marriage.

Omnia praesumuntur rite ac sollemniter esse acta. All things are presumed to be done in proper and regular form; all things are presumed to have been rightly and regularly done. • Solemniter is sometimes written sollenniter. — Also written Omnia praesumuntur rite et sollemniteracta.

Omnia praesumuntur rite et solemniter esse acta donec pro betur in con trarium. All things are presumed to have been done regularly and with due formality until the contrary is proved.

Omniaprius verbis experiri quam armis sapientem deqet. It is the part of wisdom to exhaust negotiation before resorting to arms. Terence, Eunuch 789.

Omnia, quaecunque causae cognitionem desiderant, per libellum expediri non possunt. All those causes that require detailed examination cannot be settled by petition (libellus). Dig. 50.17.71.

Omnia quaejure contrahuntur contrariojurepereunt. All obligations contracted under a law are destroyed by a law to the contrary.

Omnia quae movent ad mortem sunt deodanda. All things that cause death while they are in motion become deodands.

Omnia quae nunc vetustissima creduntur nova fuere; et quod hodie exemplis tuemur inter exempla erit. All that we now consider as ancient was at one time new; and what we respect as examples today, will in the future be received as precedents. Tacitus,Annales 11.24.

Omnia rite esse acta praesumuntur. All things are presumed to have been done in due form.

Omnibus infra regnum orantibus legis reniedium patet. The remedy of the law lies open to all within (or subject to) the realm who ask for it.

Omnis actio est loquela. Every action is a complaint.

Omnis conclusio boni et yen judicii sequitur ex bonis et verispraemissis et dictisjuratorum. Every conclusion of a good and true judgment follows from good and true premises and the verdicts ofjurors.

Omnis consensus tollit errorem. Every consent removes an error. 2 Co. Inst. 123.

Omnis contractus turpitudinis legi bus invisus. Every contract for an immoral end is odious to the laws.

Omnis definitio in jure civili periculosa est, parum est enim Ut non subverti possit. Every definition in he civil law is dangerous, for there is very little that cannot be overthrown.

Omnis exceptio est ipso quoque regula. Every exception is itself also a rule.

Omnis indemnatus pro innoxio legi bus habetur. Every uncondemned person is held by the law as innocent.

Omnis innovatio plus novitateperturbat quam utilitate prodest. Every innovation disturbs by its novelty more than it benefits by its usefulness.

Omiis interpretatio sifieri pot est itafienda est in instrumentis, ut omnes contrarietates amoveantur. Every interpretation of instruments is to be made, if it can be, so that all contradictions may be removed.

Omnis interpretatio vel declarat, vel extendit, vel restningit. Every interpretation explains, or extends, or restricts.

 

Omnis lascivia legi bus vet ita. All wantonness is contrary to law.

Omnis nova constitutiofutunisformam imponere debet, et non praeteritis. Every new enactment should regulate future, not past transactions; every new law must impose its form on future cases and not past ones. This maxim states the presumption against retroactivity. The phrase is sometimes written Omnis nova constitutlo futurEs (temporibus)formam imponere debet, non praeteritis.

Omnis persona est homo, sed non vicissim. Every person is a human being, but not every human being a person.

Omnis pnivatio praesupponit habitum. Every privation presupposes possession. • “Every discontinuance is a privation and he cannot discontinue that estate which he never had.” 

Omnisprohibitio mandato equiparatur. Every prohibition is equivalent to a command.

Omnis querela et omnis actio injuniarum limitata est infra certa tempora. Every plaint and every action for injuries is limited within fixed times.

Omnis ratihabitio retrotrahitur et mand ato priori aequiparatur. Every subsequent ratification has a retrospective effect and is equivalent to a prior command.

Omnis regula suas pat itur exceptiones et otnnis exceptio est regula. Every rule is subject to its own exceptions, and every exception is a rule.

O,nnium con tributione sarciatur quod pro omnibus datum est. What has been given for all should be compensated by the contribution of all.

Omnium rerum quarum usus est, potest esse abusus, virtute solo excepta. Of everything of which there is a use, there can be abuse, virtue alone excepted.

Opinionis commenta delet dies, naturaejudicia confirmat. Time destroys the inventions of opinion but confirms the judgments of nature. Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2.2.5.

Opinio quaefavet testamento est tenenda. That opinion is to be followed which favors the will.

Oportet etiam quod certa res deducatur in donationem, qula incertae rei nulla est donatio. It is necessary that a certain thing be brought into the gift (or conveyance), for if the thing is uncertain, there is no gift. Bracton 2.62.

Oportet quod certae personae, certae terrae, et certi status comprehendantur in declaratione usuum. It is right that certain persons, certain lands, and certain estates should be comprehended in a declaration of uses. 9 Coke 9.

Oportet quod certa res deducatur in judicium. A thing, to be brought to judgment, must be definite.

Oportet quod certa sit res quae venditur. A thing, to be sold, must be definite.

Oppositajuxta seposita magis elucescunt. Things opposite when placed together appear in a clearer light. • That is, things opposite are more conspicuous when placed together.

Optandum est Ut 1 quipraesunt reipublicae legum similes sint, quae, adpuniendum, non iracundia, sed aequitate ducuntur. It is desirable that those set in authority over the state shall be like the laws of the state, which, in inflicting punishment, are influenced not by anger, but by justice. Cicero, De Officiis 1.89.

Optima enim est legium interpnes consuetudo. Custom is the best interpreter of laws. Dig. 1.3.37.

Optima est legis interpres consuetudo. Custom is the best interpreter of the law.

Optima est lex quae minimum relin quit arbitriojudicis; optimusjudex qui minimum sibi. It is the best law that leaves the least to the discretion of the judge; the best judge is he who leaves least to himself.

Optima evidentia reipraevalebit. The best evidence of the matter will prevail (or be more efficacious).

Optima legum interpres est consuetudo. Custom is the best interpreter of law.

Optimam esse legem quae minimum relinquitarbitriojudicis id quod certitudo ejus praestat. The law is the best that leaves the least discretion to the judge; this advantage results from its certainty.

Optima stat uti interpretatrix est (omnibus particulis ejusdem inspectis) ipsum statutum. The best interpreter of a statute is (when all the separate parts of it have been considered) the statute itself.

Optimi consiliarii mortui. The dead are the best counselors.

Optimus interpres rerum usus. Usage is the best interpreter of things.

Optimus interpretandi modus est sic leges interpretare Ut leges legi bus accordant. The best mode of interpreting laws is to make laws agree with laws.

Optimusjudex qui minimum sibi. He is the best judge who (leaves) the least to his own discretion.

Optimus legum interpres consuetudo. Custom is the best interpreter of laws.

Ordine placitandi servato, servatur Ct jus. When order of pleading has been preserved, the law is also preserved. Originepropria neminem posse voluntatesua eximi manifestum est. It is manifest that no one by his own will can be stripped of his origin (or be banished from his place of origin).

Origo rd inspici debet. The origin of a thing ought to be regarded.

P

Pacta con yenta quae neque contra leges neque dolo malo inita sunt, omni modo observanda sunt. Contracts that have been entered neither illegally nor with fraud must in all respects be observed.

Pacta dant legem contra ctui. Agreements give law to the contract.

Pacta non obligantnisi gentes inter quas inita. Agreements bind only the peoples between whom they are made.

Pacta privata jun publico derogare non possunt. Private contracts cannot restrict (or take away from) public law.

Pacta quae contra leges constitutionesque vel contra bonos nioresfiunt nullam vim habere, indubitati junis est. It is a matter of unquestionable law that contracts against the laws and statutes, or against moral standards, have no force.

Pacta quae turpem causam continent non sunt observanda. Contracts founded on an immoral consideration are not to be observed.

Pacta reciproca vel utrosque ligant vel neutrum. Mutual bargains bind both parties or neither.

Pacta sunt servanda. Treaties (agreements) are to be ob. served.

Pacta tenths nec nocent necprosunt. Treaties (agreements) neither harm nor benefit third parties.

Pactisprivatorumjuripublico non derogatur. There is no derogation from public law by private contracts.

Pacto aliquid licitum est quod sine pacto non admittitur. By agreement (or contract) something is permitted that, without agreement, is not allowed. • Coke continues, “but not in violation of public law.” Co. Litt. 166.

Pactum de assedationefacienda et ipsa a.ssedatione aequiparantur, praecipue si possessio sequatur. An agreement to grant a lease is equivalent to the lease itself, especially if possession follows.

Pannagium estpastusporcurum, in nemonibus et in silvis, deglandibus, etc. A pannagium is a pasture of hogs, in woods and forests, upon acorns, and so forth.

Parens est nomen generale ad omne genus cognationis. “Parent” is a general name for every kind of relationship.

Parentum est liberos alere etiam nothos. It is the role of parents to support their children even when illegitimate.

Pania copulantur pan bus. Similar things unite with similar.

Paribus sententiis reus absolvitur. When opinions are evenly divided, the defendant is acquitted. 4 Co. Inst. 64.

Panes onerifrrundo uti nunc est ita sit. A party wall is to remain (for both tenements) intact in its present condition.

Par in parem impenium non ha bet. An equal has no power over an equal.

Par in parem non habet iurisdictionem. Equals have no jurisdiction over each other.

Parium eadem est ratio, idem jus. Of things equal, the reason and the law is the same.

Partem aliquam recte intelligere nemo potest, ante quam to turn iterum atque iterum perlegerit. No one can rightly understand any part until he has read the whole again and again.

Parte quacumque integrante sublata, tollitur totum. When any essential part has been removed, the whole is removed (or destroyed).

Participes plures sunt quasi unum corpus, in eo quod unurnjus ha bent, et oportet quod corpus sit integrum, et quod in nulla parte sit defectus. Many parceners are as one body, inasmuch as they have but one right, and it is necessary that the body be perfect, and that there be a defect in no part. Co. Litt. 164a.

Partus ex legitimo thoro non certius noscit snatrem quam genitorem suum. The offspring of a legitimate bed does not know his mother more certainly than his father.

Partus sequitur ventrem. The offspring follows the condition of the mother (literally, the womb).

Parum cavet natura. Nature takes little heed.

Parum differunt quae re concordant. Things which agree in substance differ but little.

Parum est latam esse sententiarn, nisi inandetur executioni. It is not enough that judgment has been given if it is not committed to execution.

Parurn proficit scire quid fieri debet si non cognoscas quomodo sitfacturum. It does little good to know what ought to happen, if you do not know how it will take effect.

Pater est quem nuptiae demonst rant. The father is the man whom the marriage indicates. • This expresses the idea that a child born to a married woman is presumed begotten by her husband.

Pater et mater et puer sunt una caro. The father, mother, and son are one flesh.

Pater is est quem nuptiae demonstrant. The father is he whom the marriage indicates.

Patria laboribus et expensis non debetfatigari. A jury ought not to be wearied with labors and expenses.

Patriam decet nobis cariorem esse quam nosinet ipsos. Our country should be dearer to us than ourselves. Cicero, De Finibus 3.19.64.

Patriapotestas in pietate debet, non in atrocitate consistere. Parental authority should consist in devotion, not dread.

Pat ronumfaciunt dos, aediJlcatio, fundus. Endowment building, and land make a patron.

Peccata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Offenses against nature are the most serious.

Peccata suos teneant auctores, nec ulteriusprogrediatur metus quarn reperiatur delictum. Offenses should bind their own perpetrators (only), and threat (of punishment) should not proceed further than the sphere of the crime.

Peccat mens, non corpus, et unde consilium abfuitpoena abest. The mind sins, not the body, and where there was no intent, there is no blame. Livy 1.58.9.

Peccatum peccato addit qui culpae quamfacitpatrocinium defensionis adjungit. A person adds one offense to another, who, when he commits a crime, joins to it the protection of a defense.

Pendente lite nihil innbvetur. During litigation, let nothing be changed.

Per alluvionem id videtur adici, quod ita paulatim adicitur ut intelligere non possimus quantum quoque momento temporis adiciatur. That is considered “added by alluvion” which accumulates so gradually that we cannot tell how much is added at any one moment of time. Dig. 4 1. 1.7. 1.

Pereat unus nepereant omnes. Let one perish that all not perish. 4 Coke 124b.

Perfectum est cui nihil deest secundum suaeperfectionis vel naturae, nodum. That is perfect which lacks nothing according to the measure of its perfection or nature.

Periculosum est res novas et inusitatas inducere. It is dangerous to introduce new and unaccustomed things.

Periculosum existirno quod bonorum virorum non cornprobatur exemplo. I consider that dangerous which is not approved by the example of good men.

Periculum rei vend itae, nondum traditae, est emptoris. The purchaser assumes the risk for a thing sold, but not yet delivered.

Per judicium jus est noviter revelatum quod diufuit yelatum. By judgment the law that was long concealed is newly revealed.

Perjuriipoena divina exitiurn; humana dedecus. The divine punishment of perjury is destruction; the human punishment is disgrace. Cicero, De Legi bus 2.22.6.

Perjuri sunt qui servatis verbisjuramenti decipiunt aures eorurn qui accipiunt. Those who preserve the words of an oath but deceive the ears of those who accept it are perjurors. . Coke adds, “By ancient law of England, in all oathes equivocation is utterly condemned.” 3 Co. Inst. 166.

Perpetua lex estnullarn legem humanam acpositivam perpetuam esse; et clausula quae abrogationem excludit ab initlo non valet. It is a perpetual law that no human or positive law can be perpetual; and a clause in a law that precludes abrogation is void from the outset.

Per rationes pervenitur ad legitimam rationem. By reasoning we come to legal reason.

Per regulam igitur brevis rerum narratio traditur, etquasi causae coniectio est, quae simul cum in aliquo vitiate estperdit ojjlcium suum. By a “rule” (regula), therefore, a brief account of events is given, and is as it were a summary of a case, which loses its force as soon as it is vitiated in any respect. Dig. 50.17.1.

Per rerum naturamfactum negantis nullaprobatio est. By the nature of things, a person who denies a fact is not bound to give proof.

Persona conjuncta aequiparatur interesseproprio. A personal connection is equivalent to one’s own interest.

Personae regis mergitur persona duds. The person of duke merges in that of king.

Persona est horno cum statu quodarn consideratus. A person is a human being considered with reference to a certain status.

Personae vice fungitur municipiurn et decuria. Towns and boroughs act in the role of persons.

Personalia.personam sequuntur. Personal things follow the person.

Perspicua vera non suntprobanda. Plain truths are not to be proved.

Per varios actus legern experientiafacit. In the course of various acts, experience frames the law.

Pirata est hostis humani generis. A pirate is an enemy of the human race.

Pirata non mutat dominium. A pirate (i.e., piracy) does not change ownership.

Placita de transgressione contra pacem regis, in regnoAngliae vi et armisfacta, secundum legem et consuetudinern Angliae sine brevi regis placitari non debent. Pleas of trespass against the peace of the king in the kingdom of England, made with force and arms, ought not, by the law and custom of England, to be pleaded without the king’s writ.

Placita ex directo esse debent, et nil per inductionem supponere. Pleas ought to be directly expressed and suppose nothing by way of inference.

Placita negativa duo exitum non faciunt. Two. negative pleas do not form an issue.

Placitorum alia dilatoria, alia peremptoria. Some pleas admit of delay; others are peremptory.

Placiturn aliudpersonale, aliud reale, aliud mixtum. One plea is personal, another real, (yet) another mixed.

Placitum mendax non estplacitum. A lying plea is no plea (“not pleasing” or not accepted).

Plena et celeris justitiajiatpartibus. Let the parties have full and speedy justice.

Pluralis numerus est duobus contentus. The plural number is satisfied with two.

Plures cohaeredes sunt quasi unum corpus, propter unitatern juris quod ha bent. Several coheirs are as one body, by reason of the unity of right that they possess.

Pluresparticipes sunt quasi unum corpus in eo quod unum jus ha bent. Several coheirs (or parceners) are as one body in that they have one right. Co. Litt. 164.

Plus exempla quam peccata nocent. Examples hurt more than offenses.

Plus peccat auctor quam actor. The instigator of a crime is a worse offender than the perpetrator.

Plus valet consuetudo quatn concessio. Custom is more powerful than grant.

Plus valet unus oculatus testis quam auriti decem. One eyewitness is better than ten earwitnesses.

Plus valet vulgaris consuetudo quam regalis concessio. Common custom is better than royal grant.

Plus vident oculi quam oculus. Several eyes see more than Poena ad paucos, metus ad omnesperl’eniat. Let punishment be inflicted on a few, dread on all.

Poenaepotius molliendae quam exasperandae sunt. Punishments should rather be softened than aggravated.

Poenae sunt restringendae. Punishments should be restrained.

Poena ex delicto defuncti haeres teneri non debet. The heir ought not to be penalized for the wrong (or crime) of the decedent.

Poenagravior ultra legemposita estimationern conservat. A heavier punishment, set beyond the law, preserves esteem (or standing of a defendant otherwise discredited). Dig. 3.2.13.7.

Poena non debet anteire crimen. Punishment ought not to precede the charge.

Poena non potest, culpaperennis erit. Punishment cannot be, guilt will be, perpetual.

Poena suos tenere debet actores et non alios. Punishment should take hold of the guilty (who commit the wrong), and not others. Bracton 380b.

Poena tolli potest, culpa perennis erit. The punishment can be removed, but the guilt will be perpetual.

Poena vel remedium ex incremento quod prius erat non tollit. Neither punishment nor remedy takes away the preceding increase.

Politiae legi bus, non legespolitiis, adaptandae. Politics are to be adapted to the laws, not the laws to politics.

Polygamia estplurium simul virorum uxorumve connubiurn. Polygamy is being married to more than one husband or wife at one time.

Ponderantur testes, non numerantur. Witnesses are weighed, not counted.

Pondere, numero, et mensura. Byweight, by number, and by measure. (A rule for the valuation of evidence)

Populus Anglican us nemini servire nisi Deo et legi bus. The people of England are subject to none but to God and the laws.

Pop ulus Anglicanus non nisi suis legi bus quas ipse elegent tenetur obtemperare. The people of England are bound to obey only their own laws, which they themselves have chosen.

Populus vult decipi—et decipiatur. The people wishes to be deceived — and let it be deceived.

Posito uno oppositorum negaturalterum. One of two opposite positions having been affirmed, the other is denied.

Positus in conditione non censeturpositus in institutione. One placed (or named) in a condition is not regarded as instituted (placed in the appointment). one.

Possessio contra omnes valet praeter eum cui jus sit possessionis. Possession is valid against all save him who has the right of possession.

Possessio est quasi pedis positio. Possession is, as it were, the position of the foot.

Possessiofratnis defeodo simplicifacit sororem esse haeredem. Possession by the brother in fee simple makes the sister an heir.

Possessio pacificafacit jus. Peaceable possession gives a right (after a legally prescribed period, by adverse possession).

Possessio pacifica per annos 6Ofacit jus. Peaceable possession for 60 years gives a right.

Possessio termin urn tenentispossessio reversionarii est habenda. Possession by the tenant of the estate (or fund) is to be reckoned the possession of the reversioner.

Possibilitas post dissolutionem executionis nun quam reviviscatur. Possibility is never revived after the dissolution of the execution.

Posteri dies testes sunt sapientissimi. The days thereafter are the wisest witnesses. • That is, we judge the deeds best by their results.

Posteriora derogantprionibus. Later things restrict (or detract from) earlier ones.

Posteniores leges adpriores pertinent, nisi contrariae sint. Later laws pertain to earlier, if they are not in conflict.

Posteniore testarnento prius ipso jure rumpitur. By a later will the earlier one is broken automatically.

Post facturn nullum consilium. After the deed counsel is in vain.

Posthumus pro nato habetur. A posthumous child is considered as though born (before the father’s death).

Postlirniniurnjlngit eurn qui captus est semper in civitate fuisse. Postliminy (restoration of rights) imagines that a person who has been captured has never left the state. . A person captured by the enemy, who later returns, is restored to all his former rights. Just. Inst. 1.12.5.

Potentia debet sequi justitiam, non antecedere. Power ought to follow, not to precede, justice.

Potentia est duplex, remota etpropinqua; etpotentia remotissima et vana quae nun quarn venit in actum. Possibility is of two kinds, remote and near; that which never comes into action is a power the most remote and vain.

Potentia inutilisfrustra est. Useless power is in vain.

Potentia non est nisi ad bonum. Power is not conferred but for the (public) good.

Potent enim quis rem dare etpartem rei retinere, vel par- tern depertinentiis, et illa pars quarn retinet semper cum eo est etsemperfuit. For one shall be able to grant a thing, and withhold part of the thing, or part from out the appurtenances, and that part which he withholds is always with him and always was. . This maxim expresses the idea that the operation of an exception is to retain in the grantor some portion of his former estate, and whatever is thus excepted or taken out of the grant remains in him as of his former title.

Potestas regia estfacere just itiam. The power of the crown consists in the power to do justice. 2 Co. Inst. 374.

Potestas stricte interp ret atur. Power is interpreted narrowly.

Potestas suprema seipsum dissolverepotest, ligare non potest. Supreme power can dissolve (or release), but cannot bind, itself.

Potest quis renunciare, prose etsuis,jus quod prose introductum est. A person may relinquish, for himself and his heirs, a right that was introduced for his own benefit.

Potior est conditio defendentis. Stronger is the condition of the defendant (than that of the plaintiff).

Potior est conditiopossidentis. Stronger is the condition of the possessor.

Potius ignoratiojuris litigiosa est quam scientia. Ignorance of the law leads to litigation more than knowledge of the law. Cicero, De Legi bus 1.6.18.

Praedium servitpraedio. Land is under servitude to land. • A servitude is not a personal right, but attaches to the dominant tenement.

Praeferrepatriam liberis regem decet. A king should prefer his country even before his children. Seneca, Troades 332. Praepropera consilia raro sunt prosp era. Hasty counsels are seldom prosperous.

Praescriptio est titulus ex usu et tempore substantiam capiens ab auctoritate legis. Prescription is a title derived from usage and time, given substance by the authority of law. Co. Litt. 113.

Praescriptio et executio non pertinent ad valorem contractus, sed ad tenipus et modum action is instituendae. Prescription and execution do not affect the validity of the contract, but affect the time and manner of bringing an action.

Praescriptio infeodo non acquiritjus. Prescription in fee acquires no right.

Praesentare nihil aliud est quarn praesto dare seu offerre. To present is nothing other than to give or offer on the spot.

Praesentia corporis tollit errorem nominis, et veritas no- minis tollit errorem demonstrationis. The presence of the body cancels an error in the name; the truth of the name cancels an error in the description.

Praestat cautela quam medela. Prevention is better than cure.

Praesumatur pro justitiasententiae. Let there be a presumption of sentence’s justice.

Praesumitur pro legitimatione. There is a presumption in favor of legitimacy.

Praesumitur rex habere omnia jura in scriniopectoris sui. The king is presumed to have all law in the recess of his heart. 

Praesumptio cedit veritati. A presumption yields to the truth.

Praesumptio ex eo quod plerumquefit. A presumption arises from what generally happens.

Praesumptiojuris et dejure. A presumption of right and by right (i.e, conclusive).

Praesumptiones sunt conjecturae ex signo verisimili ad probandum assumptae. Presumptions are conjectures based on indications of probable truth, assumed for the purpose of establishing proof.

Praesumptio opponiturprobationi. A presumption is distinguished from proof.

Praesumptio violenta plena pro batio. Forceful presumption is full proof. 

Praesumptio violenta valet in lege. Forceful presumption is effective in law.

Praetextu legis injusta agens duplopuniendus. He who under the cloak of the law acts unjustly should bear a double punishment.

Praetextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. What is illegal ought not to be admitted under pretext of legality.

Praxis judicum est interpres legum. The practice of the judges is the interpreter of the laws.

Prescriptio non daturin bonafelonum, nisi per recordum. Prescription is not granted against the goods of felons, except by record.

Presentipericulo succurrendum, ne qua oriripossit injuna. We must bring relief in the present danger, lest any injury arise.

Pretium succedit in locum rei. The price takes the place of the thing sold.

Prima pars aequitatis aequalitas. The first part of equity is equality.

Pnimo executienda est verbi vis, ne sermonis vitio obstruatur oratio, sive lex sine argumentis. The force of a word is to be first examined, lest by the fault of diction the sentence be destroyed or the law be without arguments.

Primus in temporepotior est in iure. The first in time is the more powerful in right.

Princeps et respublica exjusta causa possunt rem meam auferre. The king and the commonwealth can take away my property for just cause.

Pninceps legi bus solutus est. The emperor is not bound by itatutes. Dig. 1.3.31.

Pnincipalis debet semper excuti ante quam perveniatur ad fideijussores. The principal should always be exhausted before resorting to the sureties.

Principia probant, non pro bantur. Principles prove; they are not proved.

Pnincipiis obsta. Oppose beginnings. • Oppose a thing in its inception in order to have any success against it.

Principiorum non est ratio. There is no reasoning of principles.

Principium estpotissimapars cujusque rei. The beginning is the most powerful part of each thing.

Prior possessia cum titulo posteriore melior est priore titub sine possessione. Prior possession, with subsequent title, is better than prior title without possession.

Prior tempore, potiorjure. Earlier in time, stronger in right.

Prius vitiis laboravimus, nunc legi bus. We labored first with vices, now with laws. 4 Co. Inst. 76 (based on Tacitus, Annales 3.25).

Privatio praesupponit habitum. Deprivation presupposes possession.

Privatispactionibus non dubium est non laedi jus caeterorum. There is no doubt that the rights of others (not party to the agreement) cannot be prejudiced by private agreements.

Pnivatorurn conventiojuripublico non derogat. An agreement of private persons does not derogate from public law.

Priva turn commodum publico cedit. Private yields to public advantage.

Pnivatuin incommodum publico bono pensatur. Private disadvantage is made up for by public good.

Privilegium est beneficiumpersonale et extinguitur cum persona. A privilege is a benefit belonging to a person, and it dies with the person.

Privilegium est quasi privata lex. A privilege is, as it were, a private law.

Privilegium non valet contra rempublicam. A privilege has no force against the commonwealth.

Pro bandi necessitas incumbit illi qui agit. The necessity of proving rests on the one who sues (or claims some right). 

Pro bationes debent esse evidentes, (Id est) perspicuae et faciles intelligi. Proofs ought to be evident, (that is) clear and easily understood.

Pro batis extremis, praesumitur media. When the extremes have been proved, the intermediate proceedings are presumed.

Processus legis est gravis vexatio; executio legis coronat opus. The process of the law is heavy hardship; the execution of the law crowns (or rewards) the work.

Pro hi betur ne quisfaciat in suo quod nocerepossit alieno. It is prohibited for anyone to do on his own property what may injure another’s.

Prolein ante matrimonium natam, ita ut post legitimam, lex civilis succederefacit in haereditate parentum; sed prolem, quam matrimonium non pant, succedere non sinit lex Anglorum. The civil law permits the offspring born before marriage, like offspring legitimate upon marriage, to be heirs of their parents; but the law of the English does not suffer offspring not produced by marriage to succeed. 

Proles sequitursortempaternam. The offspring follows the condition of the father.

Propinquior excl ud it propinquum; propinquus remotum; et remotus rem otiorem. A nearer relation excludes a near one; a near relation excludes one distant (or removed); a distant relative excludes one yet more removed.

Propositio indefinita aequipollet universali. An indefinite proposition is equal to a general one.

Pro possessionepraesumitur dejure. From possession arises a presumption of right.

Pro possessore habetur qui dolo injuriave desiitpossidere. A person is considered a possessor who has ceased possession through fraud or injury.

Proprietas totius navis carinae causam sequitur. The property of the whole ship follows the condition of the keel.

Proprietates verborum observandue sunt. The proprieties (i.e., proper meanings) of words are to be observed.

Prosecutio legis est gravis vexatio; executio legis coronat opus. Litigation is a heavy hardship, but execution of the law crowns (or rewards) the work.

Protectio trahit subjectionem, subj ectioprotectionem. Protection brings submission; submission (brings) protection. Pro tempore, pro spe, pro commodo minuitur eorum prehum atque auget. The value of things is lessened or increased according to time, expectation, or profit.

Proviso est providere praesentia etfutura, non praeterita. A proviso is to provide for things present and future, not past.

Proximus est quem nemo antecedit; supremus est quem nemo sequitur. He is next whom no one precedes; he is last whom no one follows. Dig. 50.16.92.

Prudent en agit qui praecepto legis obtemperat. A person acts prudently who obeys the precept of law.

Pueri sunt de sanguine parentum, sed pater et mater non sunt desanguinepuerorum. Children are of the blood of their parents, but the father and mother are not of the blood of their children.

Pupillus pati posse non intelligitur. A pupil is not considered able to suffer. • That is, a pupil is not competent to permit or do what would be prejudicial to him.