MAXIMS

Q

Quae ab hostibus capiuntur, statim capientiumfiunt. Things taken from public enemies immediately become the property of the captors.

Quae ab initio inutilisfuit institutio, expostfacto convalescere non potest. An institution void in the beginning cannot acquire validity by a subsequent act.

Quae ab initio non valent, expostfacto convalescere non possunt. Things invalid from the beginning cannot be made valid by a subsequent act.

Quae accessionum locum obtinent, extinguuntur cum pnincipales resperemptaefuenint. When the principal is extinguished, those things that are accessory to it are also extinguished. Dig. 33.8.2.

Quae ad omnes pertinent omnes debent tractare. Those things which pertain to all should be exercised by all.

Quae ad unumfinem locuta sunt, non debent ad alium detorqueri. What speaks to one purpose ought not to be twisted to another.

Quae cohaerent personae a persona separani nequeunt. Things that belong to the person cannot be separated from the person.

Quae communi legi derogant stnicte interpretantur. (Statutes) that derogate from the common law should be strictly construed.

Quae contra rationem junis introducta sunt, non debent trahi in consequentiam. Things introduced contrary to the reason of the law ought not to be drawn into precedents. • “We do find divers precedents. . . which re utterly against law and reason and for that void.” 12 Coke 75.

Quae cum omnibus semper una atque eadem voce loquerentur leges inventae sunt. Laws are so designed that they may always speak with one and the same voice to all.

Quaecunque intra rationem legis inveniuntur, intra legem ipsam essejudicantur. Whatever appears within the reason of the law is considered within the law itself.

Quaecunque lex vuitfieri non vultfrusfrafieri. Whatever the law wishes done, it wishes not to be done in vain.

Quaedam etsi honeste accipiantur inhoneste tamenpetuntur. Certain things can be honorably-accepted but cannot honorably be asked for. Dig. 50.13 pr. 1.5.

Quaedam in majus malum vitandum permittet lex quae tamen nequaquam pro bet. The law will allow certain things of which it may not at all approve, in avoidance of greater evil.

Quae dubitationis causa tollendae inseruntur communem legem non laedunt. Whatever is inserted for the purpose of removing doubt does not hurt the common law.

Quae dub itationis tollendae causa contractibus inserunturjus commune non laedunt. What is inserted in contracts for the sake of removing doubt does not offend the common law.

Quae ex hostibus capimusjure gentium statim nostra fiunt. Things that we take from an enemy belong to us immediately, by the law of nations. Just. Inst. 2.1.16.

Quae incontinenti (vel certo)fiunt inesse videntur. Things that are done immediately (or with certainty) are considered part of the same transaction. Co. Litt. 236b.

Quae in curia acta sunt rite agi praesumuntur. What is done in court is presumed to be rightly done.

Quae in curia regis acta sunt rite agi praesumuntur. Things that are done in the king’s court are presumed to be righily done.

Quae in partes dividi nequeunt solida a singulispraestantur. Things (such as services) that cannot be divided into parts are rendered entire by each severally.

Quae inter alios acta sunt nemini nocere debent, sed prodessepossunt. Transactions between others can benefit, but should not injure, anyone who is not party to them.

Quae in testamento ita suntscripta ut intelligi non possint, perinde sunt ac si scripta non essent. Things that are so written in a will that they cannot be understood are as if they had not been written.

Quae legi communi derogant non sunt trahenda in exernplum. Things that derogate (or detract) from the common law are not to be drawn into precedent.

Quae legi communi derogantstricte interpretantur. Things that derogate (or detract) from the common law are construed strictly.

Quaelibet concessio domini regis capi debet stricte contra dominum regem, quandopotest intelligi duabus viis. Every grant of our lord the king ought to be taken strictly against our lord the king, when it can be understood in two ways.

Quaelibet concessiofortissime contra donatorem interpretanda est. Every grant is to be construed most strongly against the grantor.

Quaelibetjurisdictio cancellos suos habet. Every jurisdiction has its boundaries.

Quaelibet narratio super brevi locari debet in comitatu in quo breve emanavit. Every count upon the writ ought to be laid in the county in which the writ arose.

Quaelibetpardonatio debet capi secundum intentionem regis, et non ad deceptionem regis. Every pardon ought to be taken according to the intention of the king, nd not to his deception.

Quaelibetpoena corporalis, quamvis minima, major est quahbetpoenapecuniaria. Every corporal punishment, although the very least, is greater than any pecuniary punishment.

Quae mala sunt inchoata inprincipio vix bonoperaguntur exitu. Things bad in the commencement seldom end well.

Quae non fieri debent,facta valent. Things that ought not to be done are held valid when they have been done.

Quae non valeant singula, juncta juvant. Things that may not avail individually have effect when united.

Quaepraeter consuetudinem et morem majorumfiunt, neque placent neque recta videntur. What is done contrary to the custom and usage of our ancestors neither pleases nor is considered right.

Quaepropter necessita tern recepta sunt, non debent in argumentum trahi. Things that are accepted as a matter of necessity ought not to be brought into the argument. Dig. 50,17.162.

Quaeras de dubiis, legem bene discere si ViS. Inquire into doubtful points if you wish to understand the law well.

Quacre de dubiis, quia per rationes pervenitur ad legitimam rationem. Inquire into doubtful points, because through reasoning we arrive at legal reason.

Quaerere dat sapere quae sunt legitima vere. To investigate is the way to know what things are truly lawful.

Quae rerum natura prohibentur nulla lege confirmata sunt. What is prohibited by the nature of things can be confirmed by no law.

Quneritur, Ut crescant tot magna volumina legis? In promptu causa est, crescit in orbe dolus. It is asked, how so many great (law) volumes grow? The explanation is plain: because fraud grows great in the world. 

Quae singula non prosunt, juncta juvant. Things that are of no advantage individually are helpful when taken together.

Quaestiofitde legibus, non depersonis. The question is about the laws, and not about the persons.

Quae sunt minoris culpae sunt majorii infamiae. Offenses that are of lesser guilt are of greater infamy.

Quae sunt temporalia ad agenduni suntperpetua ad excipiendum. Things that afford a ground of action, if raised within a certain time, may be pleaded at any time by way of exception.

Qualitas quae inesse debet,facilepraesurnitur. A quality that ought to be inherent is easily presumed.

Quam legem exteri nobisposuere eandem illisponemus. The same law that foreign nations have put upon us we will impose upon them. 1 Bl. Corn. 252.

Quam longum debet esse rationabile tempus, non definitur in lege, sed pendet ex discretione justiciariorum. How long a time should be “reasonable” the law does not define; it depends on the discretion of the judges.

Quam quisque novit artem in hoc se exerceat. Let every man employ himself in the pursuit in which he is proficient.

Quarn rationabilis debet essefinis, non definitur, sed omnibus circumstantiis inspectis pendet exjusticiariorum discretione. How reasonable a fine should be is not defined, hut depends on the discretion of the judges, after all the circumstances have been considered.

Quamvis aliquid per se non sit malum, tamen si sit mali exempli, non estfaciendum. Although in itself a thing may not be bad, yet if it serves as a bad example, it is not to be done.

Quamvis lexgeneraliter loquitur restringenda tamen est, ut cessante ratione et ipsa cessat. Though the law speaks generally, it must be limited (by restrictive clauses), as, where the reason (for the law) ceases to apply, the law itself ceases. 

Quamvis quis pro contumacia etfuga utlagetur, non propter hoc convictus est defactoprincipali. Though a person may be outlawed for contempt and flight, he is not on that account convicted of the principal fact.

Quando abestprovisio partis, adestprovisio legis. When the provision of the party is wanting, the provision of the law is at hand.

Quando aliquid conceditur, conceditur id sine quo illud fieri non possit. When anything is granted, that also is granted without which it cannot take effect.

Quando aliquid mandatur, mandatur et omne per quod pervenitur ad illud. When anything is commanded, everything by which it can be accomplished is also commanded.

Quando aliquid perse non sit malum, tamen si sit mall exempli, non estfaciendum. When anything by itself is not evil, and yet if it is an example for evil, it is not to be done.

Quando aliquid pro hi betur ex directo, prohibetur etper obliquum. When anything is prohibited directly, it is also prohibited indirectly.

Quando aliquidprohibetur, prohibetur omne per quod devenitur ad illud. When anything is prohibited, everything by which it is arrived at is prohibited.

Quando aliquis aliquid concedit, concedere videtur et Id sine quo res uti non potest. When a person grants a thing, he is supposed to grant that also without which the thing cannot be used.

Quando charta continetgeneralem clausulam, posteaque descend it ad verba specialia quae clausulae generali sunt consentanea, interpretanda est charta secundum verba specialia. When a deed contains a general clause, and afterwards descends to special words that are consistent with the general clause, the deed is to be construed according to the special words.

Quando de una et eadem re, duo onerabiles existunt, unus, pro insufficientia alterius, de integro onerabitur. When two persons are liable concerning one and the same thing, if one makes default, the other must bear the whole liability.

Quando dispositio referri potest ad duas res, ita quod Secundum relationem unam vitiaturetsecundum alteram utilis sit, turn facienda est relatio ad illam Ut val eat dispositio. When a disposition can refer to two matters, so that according to one reference it would bevoid and by another it would be effective, reference must be made to the latter, so that the disposition may take effect.

Quando diversi desiderantur actus ad aliquem statum perficiendum, plus respicit lex actum originalem. When different acts are required to the formation of any estate, the law chiefly regards the original act.

Quando duo jura concurrunt in una persona, aequum est ac si essent in diversis. When two rights run together in one person, it is the same as if they were in separate persons.

Quandojus domini regis et subditi concurrunt, jus regis praefrrri debet. When the right of the sovereign king and of the subject run together (or clash), the right of the king ought to be preferred.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, concedere videtur id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When the law grants anything to anyone, it is considered to grant that without which the thing itself cannot be (the sine qua non). 5 Coke 47.

Quando lex aliquid alicui concedit, omnia incidentia tacite conceduntur. When the law gives anything to anyone, it gives tacitly all that is incident to it.

Quando lex est specialis, ratio autem generalis, general her lex est intelligenda. When the law is special, but its reason is general, the law is to be understood generally.

Quando licit Id quod majus, videtur licere idquod minus. When the greater is allowed, the lesser is considered to be allowed also.

Quando plus fit quamfieri debet, videtur etiam illudfieri quodfaciendum est. When more is done than ought to be done, that at least, is considered as performed that should have been performed.

Quando quod ago non valet ut ago, val eat quantum valere potest. When what I do does not have effect as I do it, let it have as much effect as it can.

Quando res non valet ut ago, valeat quantum valerepotest. When the thing is of no force as I do it, let it have as much as it can have.

Quando verba et mens congruunt, non est interpretationi locus. When the words and the mind agree, there is no room for interpretation.

Quando verba statuti sunt specialia, ratio autem generalis, generaliter stat utum cst intelligendum. When the words of a statute are special, but the reason for it general, the statute is to be construed generally.

Quanto gradu unusquisque eoruni distat stirpite, eodem distat inter se. In what degree each person is removed from the stock, to the same degree are they removed each from each other.

Quemadmodum ad quaestionemfacti non respondentjudices, ita ad quaestionemjuris non respondent juratores. In the same manner that judges do not answer questions of fact, so jurors do not answer questions of law.

Quem sequuntur commoda eundem et incommoda se. quuntur. One to whom the advantages accrue, the disadvantages also follow.

Qui abjurat regnum amittit regnum, sed non regem; patriam, sed non pat rem patriae. One who abjures the kingdom leaves the kingdom, but not the king. (leaves) the fatherland, but not the father of the fatherland. 

Qui accusat integraefamae sit et non criminosus. Let the one who accuses be of honest reputation and not implicated in a crime.

Qui acquirit sibi acquirit haeredibus. A person who acquires for himself acquires for his heirs.

Qui adimit medium dirimitfinem. A person who takes away the means destroys the end.

Qui alienas res negligenter perdit aut vi vel dolo malo aufert, suas amitt Ito. Whoever negligently ruins another man’s property, or takes it away by force or fraud, let him lose his own (of equal value).

Qui aliquid statueritparte inaudita altera, aequum licet dixerit, haud aequumfecerit. One who has decided anything without hearing the other party, even though he has said what is right, has done wrong.

Qui alteriusjure utitur, eodem jure uti debet. A person who uses the right of another ought to use the same right.

Qui alterum incusat ne in eodem saltem genere sit incusandus. If one man is to accuse another, at the least he must not be subject to accusations of the same kind.

Qui animopeccandi aliquidfacit, videturpeccasse ab mitio. He who does anything with the intention of transgressing, seems to have transgressed from the beginning.

Qui bene distinguit bene docet. One who distinguishes well teaches well.

Qui beneficium legis extra ordinem quacrit, puras manus afferto. Whosoever seeks the benefit of the law outside the ordinary course, let him bring to bear pure hands.

Qui bene interrogat bene docet. One who questions well teaches well.

Qui bonis viris pauperibus dat legi bus opitulatur; qui malis et inertibus segetem malorumfovet et legum opprobrium. One who assists good poor people assists the laws; one who assists the wicked and the lazy fosters a crop of evils and disrespect of the laws.

Qui cadit a syllaba cadit a tota causa. One who fails in a syllable fails in his whole cause.

Qui causa decedit causa cadit. One who departs from’his cause loses his case.

Qui concedit aliquid, concedere videtur et id sine quo res ipsa esse non potuit (sine quo concessio est irrita). A person who grants anything is considered as granting that without which the thing itself could not be (without which the grant is invalid). • More precisely, Cuicunque aliquis quid concedit (q.v.).  The maxim is sometimes written.

Qui concedit aliquid concedere videtur et id sine quo concessio est irrita, sine quo res ipsa esse non potuft (meaning). he who concedes anything is considered as conceding that without which his concessionwouldbe of no effect, without which the thing itself could not exist”).

Qui confirinat nihil dat. A person who confirms gives nothing.

Qui contemnit praeèeptum, contemnitpraecipientem. A person who shows contempt for the precept shows contempt for the author (or advocate) or it.

Quic quid acquiritur servo, acquiritur domino. Whatever is acquired by the servant is acquired for the master.

Quicquid demonstratae ref additur satis demonstratae frustra eat. Whatever is added to the description of a thing already sufficiently described is of no effect.

Quicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. Whatever is against the rule of right is a wrong.

Quicquid in excessu actum eat, legeprohibetur. Whatever is done in excess is prohibited by law.

Quicquidjudicis auctoritati subjicitur, novitati non subjicitur. Whatever is subject to the authority of a judge is not subject to innovation.

Quic quid per se malum est, id leges omnibus vetant. Whatever is bad in itself, that the law forbids to all.

Quicquid plantatur solo, solo cedit. Whatever is affixed to the soil belongs to it.

Quic quid recipitur, recipitur secundum modum recipientis. Whatever is received is received according to the direction of the recipient.

Quic quid solvitur, solvitur secundum modum solventis. Whatever is paid is paid according to the direction of the payer.

Qui cum alio contra hit, vel est vet debet ease non ignarus conditionis ejus. A party who contracts with another either is or ought to be cognizant of that party’s condition. Otherwise, he is not excusable. 

Quicunque aliquid statuerit parte inaudita altera, aequum licet statuerit, haud aequusfuerit. Whoever has decided anything without hearing the other side, (even) suppose the decision prove just, has hardly been just. 

Quicunquejussujudicis aliquidfecerit non videtur dolo malofecisse, quiaparere necesse eat. Whoever does anything by command of a judge is not reckoned to have done it with evil intent, because it is necessary to obey.

Qui datfinem dat media adfinem necessaria. A person who gives an end gives the necessary means to that end.

Qui dat pauperibus Deo dat. He gives to God who gives to the poor.

Qui destruit medium destruitfinem. A person who destroys the means destroys the end.

Quid leges sine mon bus vanae proficiunt. What good do laws do, (if they are) empty of moral character? Horace, Odes 3.24.

Qui doff inheriter at pére, doit inheriter alfitz. One who ought to inherit from the father ought to inherit from the son.

Qui dolo desieritpossidere pro possidente damnatur. One who has dispossessed himself by fraud is condemned (nonetheless) as possessor.

Qui dolo male desierit possidere pro possessore damnatur. One who has fraudulently ceased to possess is condemned as if he were the possessor. 

Qui dolo possess it pro possidente, (ei)pro possessione dolus eat. One who has taken possession by fraud, in place of the possessor, has fraud in place of possession.

Quidquid ab initio vitiosus eat, non potest tractu femporis convalescere. Whatever is invalid from the outset cannot become valid by the passage of time.

Quid quid a multis peccatur inultum est. The crime that is committed by a multitude passes unpunished.

Quid quid enim sive dolo et culpa venditoris accidit in eo venditorsecurus eat. For concerning anything that occurs without deceit and guilt on the part of the vendor, the vendor is secure.

Quidquid est in ternitonio, est etiam de ternitonio. Whatever is in the territory is indeed of the territory.

Quidquid iudiciiplacuit, habet legis vigorem. Whatever the judgment decides has the force of law.

Quid sit jus, et in quo consistit injuria, legis eat definire. What constitutes right, and wherein lies the injury, it is the function of the law to declare.

Quid tibifleri non vis, alteni nefecenis. Do not to another what you would not wish done to you.

Quid turpi ex causa promissum eat non valet. A promise arising from a wrongful cause is invalid.

Quieta non movere. Not to disturb what is settled.

Qui evertit causam evertit causatumfuturum. One who overthrows the cause overthrows its future effects.

Qui excessit ex ephebis est persona. One who has left youth (is no longer a minor) becomes legally a person.

Qui excusat, accusat. He who excuses, accuses.

Qui ex damnato coitu nascuntur, inter liberos non cornputentur. They who are born of an illicit union should not be counted among children.

Qui exparte testamenti aliquid donatum accipit universo testamento stabit. He who takes anything by a part of a testament will stand by the whole testament.

Qui extra causam divagatur calumniando, punitur. Whoever strays from the case indulging in slander is punished (for it).

Quifacit id quod plus est,facit Id quod minus est, sed non convert itur. A person who does that which is more does that which is less, but not vice versa.

Quifacit per aliumfacit per se. A person who acts through another acts himself. • The acts of an agent are considered the acts of the principal.

Qui ha bet jurisdictionem absolvendi, ha bet jurisdictionein ligandi. One who has jurisdiction for dissolving (an obligation) has jurisdiction to bind.

Qui haeret in litera, haeret in cortice. One who clings to the letter clings to the shell (or surface).

Qui ignorat quantum solvere debeat, non pot est impro bus videri. A person who does not know wiat he ought to pay cannot be regarded as dishonest. • Also in reverse orders Non potest impro bus videri qui ignorat quantum solvere debeat. 

Qui in alterius locum succedunt, iustam habent causam ignorantiae an Id quod peteretur deberetur. fideiussores quo que non minus quam heredes iustam ignorantiam possuntallegare. Those who succeed to someone else’s position have reasonable grounds for claiming ignorance as to whether what was claimed was owed. Guarantors, no less than heirs, can allege justifiable ignorance. 

Qui inertibus dat industrios nudat. He who gives to the indolent defrauds the industrious.

Qui injus dominIumve alterius succed it jure ejus uti debet. One who succeeds to another’s right or property ought to use that person’s right. • That is, the successor has the same rights and liabilities as attached to that property or interest in the hands of the assignor.

Qui inscienterpeccat, scienter emendet. One who offends unwittingly must make good knowingly.

Qui in utero est, pro jam nato habeturquoties tie ejus cornmodo quaeritur. A child in the womb is considered as born, whenever there is a question of benefit to the child.

Quijure suo utitur, neminifacit injuriam. A person who exercises his proper right harms no one. • This maxim is sometimes written Qui jure suo utitur neminem laedit (meaning “he who exercises his right injures no one”).

QuijussujudiCis aliquodfecerit non videtur dolo malofrcisse, quia parere necesse est. A person who has done anything by order of a judge is not considered to have acted fraud, because it is necessary to obey.

Qui libenter et saepe etparvula de re juramento se obstr- ingitperjurioproximus est. He who willingly and often binds himself by oath, even concerning small details, very close to perjury.

Quiiibetpotest renunciarejurl pro se inducto. Anyone may renounce a right introduced for his own benefit.

Qul male agit odit lucem. A person who does wrong hates the light (of discovery).

Qul mandat ipsefecisse videtur. A person who commands (a thing to be done) is considered to have done it himself.

Qui melius probat, snelius ha bet. The party who gives better proof has the better (right). • Often rendered, he who proves more recovers more.

Qui molitur insidias in patriam idfacit quod insanus nauta perforans navem in qua vehitur. He who plots against his country acts like the insane sailor who bores hole in the ship that carries him. 3 Inst. 36.

Qui nascitur sine legitimo matrimonio, matrein sequitur. A child who is born out of lawful matrimony follows the condition of the mother.

Qui non cadunt in constantern virum, vani timores sunt aestimandi. Those fears are considered vain (or frivolous) that do not affect a man of stable character.

Qui non habet, ille non dat. Who has not gives not.

Qui non habet in aere, iuat in corpore, tie quispeccetur impune. Let him who has not (the wherewithal to pay) in money pay in his person (i.e., by corporal punisbment) lest anyone be wronged with impunity.

Qui non ha bet in aere, luet in corpore. What a man cannot pay with his purse, he must suffer in person.

Qui non habet in crumena luat in corpore. One who does not have (payment) in his purse should pay with his person.

Qui non habet potestatem alienandi habet necessitatem retinendi. A person who has not the power of alienating is obliged to retain.

Qui non improbat appro bat. A person who does not disap prove approves.

Qui non libere veritatem pronuntiatproditor est yentatis. He who does not freely declare the truth is a betrayer of the truth.

Qui non negatfatetur. A person who does not deny admits.

Qui non obstat quod obstarepotest, facere videtur. A person who does not prevent what he can prevent is consideredto act.

Qui non peceavit poenam non feret. He that has not transgressed must not suffer punishment.

Qui non potest donare non potest confiteni. He who is not able to give cannot confirm.

Qui non prohi bet cum prohibere possit, jubet. A person who does not forbid when he can forbid commands.

Qui non prohi bet quod prohiberepotest, assentire videtur. A person who does not forbid what he can forbid is considered to assent.

Qui non propulsat injuriam quando potest infert. A person who does not repel an injury when he can brings it on.

Qui non vetatcum debeatetpossitjUbet. One who does not forbid a thing, when he can and he should, orders it.

Qui obstruit aditum destruzt commodum. A person who obstructs an entrance destroys a conveniency.

Qui otnne dicit nihil excludit. A person who says all excludes nothing.

Qui ordine ulteniora admittitpraecedentia affirmat. One who admits what comes further in sequence affirms what precedes.

Qui parcit nocentibus innocentes punit. A person who spares the guilty punishes the innocent.

Quipeccat ebrius, luatsobnius. Let him who offends while drunk be punished when sober; one who offends when drunk must pay when sober. • The phrase is sometimes taken to mean that one who sins ignorantly must correct it knowingly.

Qui per aliumfacit per seipsumfacere videtur. A person who does anything through another is considered as doing it himself.

Quiperfraudem agxtfrustra agit. He who commits fraud, acts in vain.

Quipericulum aniat in eoperibit. He who loves danger will perish by it.

Quipotest et debet vetare, tacens jubet. A person who can and ought to forbid a thing (as much as) orders it, if he keeps silent.

Qui primum peccat illefacit rixam. Who first offends causes the quarrel.

Qui prior est tempore potior est jure. The person who is prior in time is stronger in right.

Quipriusjus suum insinuaveritpraeferetur. One who has recorded his right earlier shall be preferred.

Qui pro me aliquidfacit, mihifecisse videtur. A person who does something in my behalf is considered to have done it to me (for me). • “To do a service for a man is to do it to him.” 2 Co. Inst. 500.

Quiprovidetsibi, providet haeredibus. A person who provides for himself provides for his heirs.

Qui rationem in omnibus quaerunt rationem subvertunt. They who seek a reason for everything subvert reason.

Qui sciens solvit indebitum donandi consilio id videturfecisse. A person who knowingly pays what is not due is considered to have done it with the intention of making a gift.

Qui scit se decipi non decipitur. One who knows that he is being deceived is not deceived.

Qui semel actionem renunciaverit, amplius repetere non potest. A litigant who has once renounced his action cannot bring it any longer.

Qui semel malus, semper praesumitur esse malus in eodem genere. A person who is once bad is always presumed to be bad in the same kind of affair.

Qui sentitcommodum, sen tire debetet onus. A person who enjoys the benefit ought also to bear the burden.

Qui sentit commodum sentire debet et onus; et e contra. A person who enjoys the benefit ought also to bear the burden; and the contrary.

Qui sent it on us, sentire debet et commodum. A person who feels the burden ought also to feel the benefit.

Quis erit innocens, si clam vel palam accusare sufficiat? If mere accusation, secret or open, can convict, who will go free?

Qui serius solvit minus solvit. He who pays late pays less.

Qui sine dab mabo ad judicium provocat, non videtur moramfacere. One who demands judgment without fraud is not regarding as guilty of delay.

Quisquis est qui velit jurisconsultus haberi, cntinuet studium, velit a quocunque doceri. Whoever there is who wishes to be regarded as a jurisconsult (legal expert) should prolong his study and be willing to be taught by everyone.

Quisquispraesumitur bonus, etsemper in dubiis pro reo respondendum. Everyone is presumed to be good, and in doubtful cases, the decision must always be for the accused.

Quisquis suafacta scire et presumitur et debet. Everyone is presumed to know and ought to know his own cause.

Qui suspicionem peccati inducit, peccat. He offends who occasions the suspicion of an offense.

Qui suum recipit, licet a non debit ore, non tenetur restituere. He who receives his due, although not from his debtor, is not bound to restore.

Qui tacet consentire videtur. A party who is silent appears to consent.

Qui tacet consentire videtur ubi tractatur de ejus commodo. A party who is silent is considered as assenting, when his advantage is debated.

Qui tacet non utiquefatetur, sed tamen verum est eum non negare. A person who is silent does not indeed confess, but yet it is true that he does not deny.

Qui tardius solvit minus solvit. A person who pays too late pays less (than he ought).

Qui tempus praetermittit causam perdit. He who is dilatory loses his cause.

Qui timent, cavent et vitant. They who are afraid are wary and risk-averse.

Qui totum dicit nihil excipit. He who says all leaves nothing out.

Qui vi rapuit,fur improbior esse videtur. One who robs by violence is a more shameless thief. 

Quivis proesumitur bonus donec pro betur contrarium. Every man is presumed good until the contrary is proved.

Qui vult decipi, decipiatur. Let one who wishes to be deceived be deceived.

Quocumque modo velit; quocumque modo possit. In any way he wishes; in any way he can.

Quod ab initio non valet, (in) tractu temporis non convalescet. What is ill from the outset will not be cured by passage of time.

Quod adjus naturale attinet, omnes homines aequales sunt. All men are equal as far as natural law is concerned.

Quod aedificatur in area legata cedit legato. Whatever is built on land given by will passes with the gift of the land.

Quod alias bonum etjustum est, si per vim velfraudem pet atur, malum et injustum efficitur. What is otherwise good and just, if it is sought by force or fraud, becomes bad and unjust.

Quod alias non fuit licitum necessitas licitumfacit. Necessity makes lawful what otherwise was unlawful.

Quod app robo non reprobo. What I approve I do not disapprove.

Quod a quoque poenae nomine exactum est id eidem restituere nemo cogitur. What has been exacted from someone as a penalty no one is obliged to restore to him.

Quod attinet ad jus civile, servi pro nullis ha be ntur, non tamen etjure naturali, quia, quod ad jus naturale attinet, omnes homines aequali sunt. So far as the civil law is concerned, slaves are not reckoned as nonentities, but not so by natural law, for so far as regards natural law, all men are equal.

Quod civilejus non idem continuo gentium; quod autem gentium idem civile esse debet. The civil law is not necessarily the law of nations, but the law of nations ought to be civil law.

Quod conscientia vult, ubi lex deficit, aequitas coit. When the law is lacking, equity compels what conscience wishes.

Quod constat dare, non debet verificari. What is clearly agreed need not be proved.

Quod constat curiae, opere testium non indiget. What appears true to the court needs not the help of witnesses.

Quod contra juris rationem receptum est, non est producendum ad consequentias. What has been admitted against the reason of the law ought not to be drawn into precedents.

Quod contra legem fit, pro infecto habetur. What is done contrary to the law is considered as not done.

Quod contra rationem juris recepturn, non estproducendurn ad consequentias. That which is received against the reason of the law is not to be extended to its logical consequences.

Quodcumque est lucri commune. Whatever of profit (is found) is shared. • That is, a windfall is the common property of the finders.

Quodcunque aliquis cli tutelarn corporis suifecerit jure id fecisse videtur. Whatever one does indefense of his person, he is considered to have done legally.

Quod datum est cccl esiae, datum est Deo. What has been given to the church has been given to God.

Quod decet, non quod licet, laus est. To do what is proper, not what is permitted, is worthy of praise.

Quad demonstrandi causa additur rei satLc demonstratae, frustra fit. What is added for the sake of demonstration to a thing sufficiently demonstrated is done to no purpose.

Quod differtur non aufertur. That which is deferred is not relinquished (omittance is no quittance).

Quod dubitas, nefeceris. When in doubt, do not do it.

Quod enim nuflius est Id ratione naturali occupanti conceditur. For whatever belongs to no one, by natural reason becomes property of the first taker.

Quod enim semel aut bis existit, praetereunt legislatores. Legislators pass by that which happens but once or twice.

Quad est cx necessitate nun quam introducitur, nisi quando necessarium. What is introduced of necessity is never introduced except when necessary.

Quod est inconveniens aut contra rationem non permissum est in lege. What is unsuitable or contrary to reason is not allowed in law.

Quod est necessarium est liciturn. What is necessary is lawful.

Quad factum est, cum in obscuro sit, cx affectione cujusque cap it interpretationem. When what has been done is in doubt, it is interpreted according to each person’s attitude (originally referring to the interpreter, later to the actor)

Quodfato contingit cuivis diligentissimopossit contingere. What happens by fate (or accidents) may happen to even the most diligent. 

Quodfieri dcbetfacilepraesumitur. That which ought to be done is easily presumed.

Quad fieri delict infectum valet. What ought to take effect has validity even if it is not (properly) applied.

Quodfieri debuit pro facto censetur. What ought to have been done is reckoned as done.

Quad fieri non delict, factum valet. What ought not to be done, when done, is valid.

Quodfieri vetatur cx directo vetatur etiam ab obliquo. What is forbidden to be done directly is forbidden also indirectly.

Quodfraudefactum estin alias infectum esto, contrafraudatorem valet. What is done in fraud, although null and void against others, is valid against the defrauder.

Quad hodie exempUs tuemur, inter exempla erit. What today we respect as examples, will be found among precedents in future. Tacitus, Annales 11.24.11.

Quod inconsultofecirnus, consultius revocemus. What we have done without due consideration we should revoke with better consideration.

Quad initlo non valet, tractu temporis non valet. What is void in the beginning does not become valid by passage of time.

Quod initio vitiosum est non potest tractu temporis convalescere. What is defective in origin cannot be mended by passage of time.

Quod injure scripto jus appellatur, Id in lege Angliae recturn esse dicitur. What in the civil law (literally, written law) is called jus, in the law of England is said to be recturn (right).

Quad in majore non valet nec valet in minore. That which avails not in the greater avails not in the less.

Quod tn minori valet, valebit in majori; et quod in majori non valet, nec valebit in minori. What avails in the less will avail in the greater; and what does not avail in the greater will not avail in the less.

Quod in se malum ubicumquefacturnfuerit nullajurispositivi ratione valebit. That which is bad in itself wherever it is done cannot be valid by any reckoning of positive law.

Quad in uno similium valet, valebit in altero. What avails in one of two similar things will avail in the other.

Quad ipsis, qui contraxerunt, obstat, et successoribus eorum obstabit. That which bars those who have contracted will bar their successors also.

Quad juris in toto idern in parte. That which is law as regards the whole is also law as to the part.

Quodjussu alterius solvitur pro eo est quasi ipsi solutum esset. That which is paid at the bidding of another has the same effect as if it had been paid to that person himself. • The party who has a debt paid for him is in the same position as though the money were paid to him directly. Dig. 17.180.

Quad lege tuum est amplius esse tuum non potest. What is yours by law cannot be more yours.

Quad legis constructio non facit injuriam. That the construction of law worketh no injury. Co. Litt. 183a.

Quod meum est sine facto mea vel defectu meo amitti vel in alium transferri non potest. What is mine cannot be lost or transferred to another without my act or through my forfeiture.

Quad meum est, sine facto sive defectu meo amitti seu in aliurn transferri non potest. What is mine cannot be lost or transferred to another without my own act or default.

Quad meum est sine me auferri non pot est. What is mine cannot be taken away without me (i.e., my consent).

Quod minus est in obligationern videtur deductum. That which is the lesser is held to be imported into the contract.

Quod naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, yecaturjus gentium. What natural reason has established among all men is called the law of nations.

Quod naturaliter inesse debetpraesurnitur. That is presumed which ought naturally to be present.

Quad necessarie intelligitur Id non deest. What is necessarily understood is not lacking.

Quod necessitas cogit, defendit. What necessity compels, it justifies.

Quod non apparet non est. That which does not appear does not exist. 2 Inst. 479.

Quod non apparet non est, et non apparet judicialiter ante judicium. What appears not does not exist, and nothing appears judicially before judgment.

Quod non cap it Christus, cap itfiscus. What Christ (or the church) does not take, the treasury takes.

Quod non ha bet principium non habetfinem. What has no beginning has no end.

Quod non legitur non creditur. What is not read is not believed.

Quod non valetinprincipali, in accessorioseu consequenti non valebit; et quod non valet in magis propin quo, mm valebit in magis remoto. What is not valid in the principal will not be valid in the accessory or consequence; and what has no effect in the nearer instance will be of no effect in the more remote.

Quod nostrum est, sine facto sive defectu nostro, amitti seu in alium transferri non potest. That which is ours cannot be lost or transferred to another without our own act, our own default.

Quod nullius essepotest, id utalicujusfieret nulla obligatio valet efficere. What can belong to no one no agreement (or obligation) can make property of anyone. Dig. 50.17.182.

Quod nullius est, est domini regis. That which belongs to nobody belongs to our lord the king.

Quod nullius est id ratione naturali occupanti conceditur. What belongs to no One, by natural reason becomes property of the first occupant. Dig. 41.1.3.

Quod nullo interno vitio labo rat et objecto impedimento cessat, remoto impedimenta per se emergit. That which, laboring under no internal fault, is overcome by obstacles, emerges of itself, the obstacle being removed.

Quod nullum est, nullumproducit effectum. That which is null produces no effect.

Quod omnes tangit, ab omnibus debetsupportari. What touches (or concerns) all ought to be supported by all.

Quod per me non possum, necperalium. What I cannot do in person, I also cannot do through the agency of another.

Quod per recordum pro batum non debet esse negatum. What is proved by the record ought not to be denied.

Quod populus postremum jussit, Id jus ratum esto. What the people have last enacted, let that be the established law.

Quod primum est intentione ultimum est in operatione. That which is first in intention is last in operation.

Quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem. What has pleased the prince (i.e., what the emperor has decided) has the force of law. 

Quodprincipiplacuit legis ha bet vigorem; utpote cum lege regia, quae de imperio ejus iota est, populus ei et in eum omne suum imp erium et potestatem conferat. A decision of the emperor has the force of law; for, by the royal law that has been made concerning his authority, the people have conferred on him all their sovereignty and power. Dig. 1.4.1.

Quodprius est venus est; et quod pnius est temporepotius estjure. What is prior is truer; and what comes earlier in time is stronger in right.

Quod privilegia quae re vera sunt in praejudicium reipublicae, magis tamen speciosa habentfrontispicia, et boni publici praetextum, quam bonae et legales concessiones, sed praetextu liciti non debet admitti illiciturn. There are privileges that are really detrimental to the state, but that have a more colorful appearance and show of public good than good and lawful concessions. But the unlawful should not be accepted as valid on the ground of a showing of legality.

Quod pro minore licitum est et pro majore licitum est. What is lawful in the lesser is also lawful in the greater.

Quod pure debeturpraesenti die debetur. That which is due unconditionally is due the same day.

Quodque dissoivitur codem modo quo ligatur. In the same manner that anything is bound, it is unbound.

Quod quis ex culpa sua damnun, sent it, non intelligitur damnum sentire. The damage that any person suffers by his own fault he is not considered to suffer as damage. Dig. 50. 17.203.

Quod quisquis nor, in hoc se exerceat. Let every one employ himself in what he knows.

Quod quis sciens indebitum dedit hoc mente, Ut postea repeteret, repetere non potest. What one has paid knowing that it is not owed, with the intention of reclaiming it afterwards, he cannot recover. Dig. 12.6.50.

Quod remedio destituitur ipsa re valet si cuipa absit. What is without a remedy is by that very fact valid if there is no fault.

Quod rex contra leges jubet pro injussu reputabitur. What the king orders contrary to the law shall be considered unauthorized.

Quod semel out bis exist it pro etereunt legzslatores. Legislators pass over what happens (only) once or twice.

Quod semel meum est amplius meum esse non potest. What is once mine cannot be any more completely mine.

Quod sernel piacuit in electione, amplius displicere non potest. That which in making his election a man has once decided, he cannot afterwards disavow.

Quad solo inaedificatur solo cedit. Whatever is built on the soil goes with the soil.

Quod statuendum est semel diu deliberandum est. Time must be taken for deliberation, when we have to determine once and for all.

Quod sub certaforma concessum vel reservatum est, non trahitur ad valorem vel compensationem. That which has been granted or reserved under a certain form is not to be drawn into valuation or compensation.

Quod subintelligitur non deest. What is understood is not lacking.

Quod tacite intelligitur deesse non videtur. What is tacitly understood does not appear to be lacking.

Quod talem eligifaciat qui melius et sciat et velit, etpossit officio illi intendere. That person should be chosen who best understands and is willing and able to perform the duty of the office. 1 BI. Corn. 336 (ch. 9.2).

Quad tibifieri non vis alteri non feceris. Do not do to another what you do not wish done to yourself.

Quod vanum et inutile est, lex non requinit. The law does not require what is vain and useless.

Quod vero contra rationern juris receptum est, non est producendum ad consequentias. But what has been admitted contrary to the reason of law ought not to be drawn into precedents.

Quad vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnesperaeque custoditur vocaturque iusgentiurn. But the law that natural reason has established among all persons. that law is observed uniformly among all, and is called the law of peoples.

Quo libe UI in celeberrimis locisproponuntur, huic neperire quidem tacite conceditur. When charges against a man are published in the most crowded places, this person is not allowed even to perish quietly. • That is, the criminal arraigned in public cannot be condemned in private. 

Quo ligatur, eo dissolvitur. As a thing is bound, so it is unbound.

Quo modo quid constituitur eodem modo dissolvitur. In whatever mode a thing is constituted, in the same manner it is dissolved.

Quorum praetextu nec auget nec mintuit sententiam, sed tantum confirmatpraemissa. “Quorum praetextu” neither increases nor diminishes the meaning, but only confirms what went before.

Quothomines, tot sententiae. There ar as many opinions as there are people.

Quotiens dubia interpretatio libertatis est, secundum libertatem respondendum erit. Whenever there is an interpretation doubtful as to liberty(or slavery), the decision must be in favor of liberty.

Quotiens idem sermo duassententias expritnit, eapoti.ssimum accipiatur quae rei gerendae aptior est. Whenever the same words express two meanings, that is to be taken most strongly which is the better fitted for carrying out the proposed end.

Quoties aequitatem desideril naturalis ratio aut dubitatio furls nioratur,fustis decretis res temperanda est. Whenever natural reason or doubt about the law delays an equitable request, the matter must be resolved by just decrees. Dig. 50.17.85.2.

Quoties dubia interpretatio libertatis est secundum libertatem respondendum erit. A doubtful interpretation of liberty must be answered in favor of liberty. Dig. 50.17.20.1

Quoties duplici jure defertur alicui successio, repudiato novojure, quod ante defertur supererit vet us. As often as a succession comes to a man by a double right, the new right is laid in abeyance, and the old right by which he first succeeds, survives.

Quoties in stipulationibus ambigua oratio est, commodissimum est id accipi quo res de quo agitur in tuto sit. Whenever in stipulations the expression is ambiguous, it is most proper to give it that interpretation by which the subject matter may be in safety.

Quoties in verbis nulla est ambiguitas, ibi nulla expositio contra verba expressafienda est. Whenever there is no ambiguity in the words, then no exposition contrary to the words is to be made.

Quoties lege aliquid unum vel alterum introductum est, bona occasio est caetera quae ten dunt ad eandem utilitatem vel interpretatione, vel certejurisdictione suppleri. Whenever some rule or other is introduced by law, it is a good opportunity for other (provisions) conducive to the same purpose to be supplied, either by interpretation or indeed by judicial decision.

Quo tutela red it eo haereditaspervenit, nisi cumfoeminae haeredes intercedunt. An inheritance comes in the way in which guardianship goes, unless female heirs intervene.

Quum de lucro duorum quaeratur, melior est conditio possidentis. When there is a question of gain (to one) of two parties, the condition of the possessor is the better.

Quum duae interse repugnantia reperianturin testarnento, ultima rata est. Where there are two repugnant clauses in a will, the last clause shall prevail.

Quum in testamento ambigue aid etiam perperam scrip- turn est, benigne interpretari et secundum id quod credible est cogitatum, credendum est. When in a will an ambiguous or even an erroneous expression occurs, it should be construed liberally and in accordance with what is thought the probable meaning (of the testator).

Quumprincipalis causa non consistit, ne ea quidem quae sequuntur locum ha bent. When the principal cause does not stand, neither do the accessories (or consequences) obtain.

R

Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur. Ratification is equal to a command. • This maxim is sometimes written Ratihabitio mandato comparatur (meaning “ratification is equivalent to a command”).

Ratihabitio retrotrahitur et mandato aequiparatur. Ratification relates back and is equal to a command. Co. Litt. 180b.

Ratio estformalis causa consuetudinis. Reason is the source and formal cause of custom.

Ratio est legis anima, mutata legis ratione mutatur et lex. Reason is the soul of the law; when the reason of the law has been changed, the law is also changed.

Ratio est radius divini luminis. Reason is a ray of the divine light.

Ratio et auctoritas duo clarissim mundi lumina. Reason and authority are the two brightest lights in the world.

Ratio injure aequitas integra. Reason in law is perfect equity.

Ratio legis est anima legis; mutata legis ratione, mutatur et lex. The reason of the law is the soul of the law; the reason of law being changed, the law is also changed.

Ratione cessante, cessat ipsa lex. The reason ceasing, the law itself ceases. (That is, no law can survive the reasons on which it is founded.)

Ratio non clauditur loco. Reason is not confined to any place.

Ratio potest allegari deficiente lege, sed vera et legalis et non apparens. A reason can be adduced when the law is defective, but it must be a true and legal reason, and not specious (or apparent).

Raturn quis habere non potest, quod ipsius nornine non est gestum. One cannot hold ratified that which has not been done in his own name.

Receditur aplacitis jurispotius quam injuriae etdelicta maneant impunita. One departs from settled rules of law, rather than let crimes and wrongs remain unpunished.

Recipitur in modum recipientis. A thing is received in the way the recipient intends.

Recorda sunt vestigia vetustatis et veritatis. Records are vestiges of antiquity and truth.

Recuperatio est alicujus rei in causam alterius adductae per judicern acquisitio. Recovery is the acquisition, by sentence of the judge, of anything adduced in the cause of another.

Recurrendum est ad extraordinarium quando non valet ordinarium. We must have recourse to what is extraordinary when what is ordinary fails.

Reddenda singula singulis. Each must be put in each separate place. • That is, the several terms or items apply distributively, or each to its proper object.

Redditus caecus estsiccus. Rent that is blind (or uncertain) is dry (barren, or “rent seck”).

Regia dignitas est indivisibilis, et quaelibet alia derivativa dignitas estsimiliter indivisibilis. The kingly power is indivisible, just as every other derivative power is indivisible.

Regis curia et curia populi siveparliamentuni non exscripto, sed ex communi legesunt. Courts, whether of the king, or of the people, or parliament, are established not by written but by common, law. V

Regnandi causa malum coram non judice. A case of royal title (or challeige to it) is an evil without (a proper) court. (The courts represent the ruler himself and he cannot decide in his own case).

Regnum non est divisibile. The kingdom is not divisible.

Regula est,juris quidem ignorantiam cuique nocere, facti vero ignorantiam non nocere. The rule is that ignorance of the law is harmful (or prejudicial) to anyone, but ignorance of a fact is not. • Ignorance of a fact may excuse a party from the legal consequences of his conduct, but not ignorance of law.

Regula est quae rem quae est breviter enarrat, non ut ex regulajus sumatur, sed ex jure quod est regula fiat. A rule (regula) briefly reports what the matter is, not so that law (ius) maybe taken from the rule but that the rule be made from the law. 

Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. If the law is inadequate, the maxim serves in its place.

Regulariter non valet pactum de re mea non alienanda. As a rule, a contract not to alienate my property is not binding.

Rei depositaeproprietas apud deponentem manet, ced et possessio. The depositor retains ownership of a thing deposited, but also possession.

Reipublicae interest voluntates defunctorurn effectum sortin. It is in the interest of the state that the wills of the dead should have their (intended) effect.

Rei turpis nullum mandatum est. There is no mandate for a thing immoral (or illegal). • Hence, there is no action for failing to act on such a mandate. Dig. 17.1.6.3.

Relatio estfictio juris et intenta ad unum. Relation is a fiction of law, and intended for one thing. • Coke explains, “Relatio is a fiction of law to make a nullity of a thing ab initio”; ob,stacles are removed for the one purpose, ut res magis valeat, that the matter have effect. 3 Coke 28.

Relatlo semper fiat ut valeat dispositio. Reference should always be made in such a manner that a disposition (in a will) may have effect. V

Relativorum cognito uno, cognoscitur et alterum. Of things relating to each other, one being known, the other is also known.

Religio-sequitur pat rem. Religion follows the father. • The father’s religion is prima facie the infant’s religion.

Remissius imperanti melius paretur. A person commanding not too strictly is better obeyed.

Remoto impedimento, emergit actio. When the impediment has been removed, the action arises,

Repellitur a sacramento infamis. An infamous person is prevented from taking an oath.

Repellitur exceptione cedendarum actionum. (The litigant) is defeated by the plea that the actions have been assigned.

Rep no bata pecunia libe rat solventem. Money refused releases the person paying (or offering payment).

Rep utatio est vulganis opinio ubi non est veritas. Reputation is a common opinion where there is no certain knowledge.

Rerum ordo confunditur, si unicuiquejurisdictio non servetur. The order of things is confounded if the proper jurisdiction of each is not maintained.

Rerum progressus ostendunt multa, quae in initio praecaveni seu praevideri non possunt. The course of events reveals many things that in the beginning could not be guarded against or foreseen.

Rerum suarum quilibet est moderator et arbiter. Every one is the manager and disposer of his own matters.

Res accendent lumina rebus. Matters will throw light on (other) matters.

Res accessoria sequitur rem principalem. An accessory follows its principal.

Res bonafide venditapropter minimam causam inempta fieri non debet. A thing sold in good faith should not become unsold for a trivial cause. Dig. 18.1.54.

Rescriptuni principis cont ra jus non valet. The prince’s rescript, if contrary to law, is of no avail.

Res denominatur a principalioni parte. A thing is named from its more essential (or primary) part.

Reservatio non debet esse deproficuis ipsis quia ea conceduntur, sed de redditu novo extra proficua. A reservation ought not to be of the annual increase itself, because it is granted, but of new rent apart from the annual increase.

Reservatio ut etprotestatio non facit jus sed tuetur. Reservation and protest do not create a right but protect a right.

Res est misera ubi jus est vagum et incertum. It is a miserable state of things where the law is vague and uncertain.

Res generalem ha bet sign ifi cationem, quia tam corporea, quatn incorporea, cujuscunque sunt generis naturae sive speciei, comprehendit. The word “things” has a general signification, because it comprehends corporeal as well as incorporeal objects, of whatever sort, nature, or species.

Resignatio est juris propnii spontanea refutatio. Resignation is the spontaneous rejection of one’s own right.

Res inter alios acta allis non nocet. A thing done between two parties does not damage other parties; a matter transacted between parties (e.g., to a contract) does not prejudice nonparties.

Res inter alias acta alteri nocere non debet. Things done between others ought not to injure an outsider (not party to them).

Res inter alias judicatae nullum allis praejudicium fociunt. Matters adjudged in the lawsuits of others do not prejudice those who were not parties to them.

Resjudicata exceptionem paritperpetuam. A matter judicially decided begets a perpetual exception.

Resjudicatafacit ex albo nigrum, cx nigro album, ex curvo rectum, ex recto curvum. A matter adjudged makes white black; black white; the crooked straight; the straight crooked.

Resjudicata inter alios allis neque nocet neque prodest. A matter decided among some litigants ought neither to harm nor benefit others.

Resjudicata inter partes jusfacit. A question adjudicated makes law (or establishes the right) between the parties.

Resjudicata pro veritate accipitur. A matter adjudged is taken for truth.

Resjudicata pro veritate habetur. A thing adjudged is held as truth. Dig. 50.17.207.

Res locataperit domino. Leased property perishes to the owner. (Loss that is not the tenant’s fault is at the owner’s expense.)

Res nullius naturaliterfitprimi occupantis. A thing that has no owner naturally belongs to the first taker.

Resolutojure concedentis, resolviturjus concessum. When the right of the grantor has been extinguished, the right granted is extinguished.

Resolutojure dantis, resolvitur jus accipientis. The right of the giver having become void, the right of the receiver is void also.

Resperiit domino suo. The destruction of the thing is a loss to its owner.

Resperpecuniam aestimatur, et non pecunia per res. The value of a thing is estimated by its worth in money, and the value ofmoney is not estimated by reference to things.

Respiciendum estjudicanti nequid aut durius aut remissius constituatur quam causa deposcit; nec enim aut Severitatis aut clementiae gloria affectanda est. The person judging must see to it that nothing should be either more severely or more leniently construed than the cause itself demands; neither for severity nor clemency is glory to be sought after.

Respondeat raptor, qui ignorare non potuit quodpupillum alienum abduxit. Let the ravisher answer, for he could not be ignorant that he has taken away another’s ward.

Respondeat superior. Let the principal answer.

Responsio unius non omnino audiatur. The answer of one witness should not be heard at all.

Resprivatae sunt quae singulorum sunt. Private things are those which belong to individuals. Gaius Inst. 2.11.

Respropria est quae communis non est. A thing is private that is not common.

Res quae intra praesidia perductac nondum suntquanquam ab hosti bus occupatae, ideopostliminii non egent, quia dominum nondum mutarunt ex gentium jure. Things that have not yet been brought within the enemy’s camp, although held by the enemy, do not need the fiction ofpostliminy on this account, because their ownership by the law of nations has not yet changed.

Res sacra non recipit aestimatione. A sacred thing does not admit of valuation.

Res stulta est nequitiae modus. A measure (or limit) on wickedness is a foolish thing. • That is, there is no mean in mischief. (Cf. Seneca, Agamemnon 150; 2 Inst. 507).

Res sua nemini servit. No one can have a servitude over his own property.

Res transit cum suo onere. The thing passes with its burden.

Reus excipiendo fit actor. The defendant by a plea (or exception) becomes plaintiff.

Reus laesae majestatispunitur, utpereat unus nepereant omnes. A traitor is punished that one may die lest all perish.

Re, verbis, scripto, consensu, traditione, junctura vestes sumerepacta solent. Compacts usually take their clothing from the thing itself, from words, from writings, from consent, from delivery, from the joining together.

Reversio terrae est tan quam terra revertens in possessione donatori sive haeredibus suis post donumfinitum. A reversion of land is as it were the return of the land to the possession of the donor or his heirs after the termination of the gift.

Rex ad justitiamfaciendam non cogitur. The king is not compelled to do justice.

Rex daturpropter regnum, non regnum propter regem. A king is given for the sake of the kingdom, not the kingdom forthe king.

Rex debet esse sub lege, quia lexfacit regem. The king should be subject to the law, for the law makes the king. 

Rex est caput et salus reipublicae. The king is the head and safety of the commonwealth.

Rex est legalis etpoliticus. The king is (the fount of) both law and policy.

Rex est lex vivens. The king is the living law.

Rex est major singulis, minor universis. The king is greater than any single person: less than all.

Rex estpaterpatriae. The king is the father of his country.

Rex est persona mixta, inedicus regni, paterpatriae, et sponsus regni. The king is a mixed person: the physician of the state, the father of the country, and the husband of the kingdom.

Rex est persona sacra et mixta cum sacerdote. The king is a sacred person, and joined with the priesthood.

Rex est qui metuit et qui cupit nihil. He is truly a king who fears nothing and who desires nothing.

Rex in regno suo non ha bet parem. The king has no equal in his own kingdom. Jenkins, Eight Centuries 78.

Reç lege cadere non potest. The king cannot legally cease.

Rex legi subjectus est. The king is subject to the law.

Rex nihil aliud est quam lex agens. The king is nothing else than law in action.

Rex nil dat nisi per recordum. The king gives nothing except by record.

Rex nilpotestjubere nisi per curiam legitime constitutam. The king can order nothing except through his regularly constituted court (parliament).

Rex non debet esse sub homine, sed sub Deo et sub lege, quia lexfacit regem. The king ought to be under no man, but under God and the law, because the law makes a king. Bracton 1.8.5.

Rex non debetjudicare sed secundum legem. The king ought to judge only according to law.

Rex non est ubi voluntas dominatur. He is not king when his will is lord and master.

Rex non potestfallere necfalli. The king cannot deceive or be deceived.

Rex non potestgratiamfacere cum injuria et danino aliorum. The king cannot confer a favor on anyone to the injury and damage of others.

Rex non potest invitum civem regno depellere. The king cannot expel a subject against his will from the kingdom.

Rex non potest malum vel injuriamfacere. The king cannot do evil or injustice.

Rex non potestpeccare. The king can do no wrong.

Rex non potestsubdlturn onerare impositionibus. The king may not oppressively levy taxes upon a subject.

Rex nun quam infra aetatem est. The king is never under age.

Rex nun quam moritur. The king never dies.

Rex prosequi in judiciopotest in qua curia sibi visumfuefit. The king can proceed in whatever court he decides upon.

Rex quod injus turn estfacere non potest. The king cannot do what is unjust.

Rex semper praesumitur attendere ardua regni pro bono publico omniurn. The king is always presumed to attend to the business of the realm, for the public good of all. ‘ Rex summus dominus supra omnes. The king is the great lord over all. 

Rex tuetur legem, et lex tuetur jus. The king protects the law, and the law protects the right. Co. Litt. 130a.

Riparum usus publicus est jure gentium, sicut ipsiusfiurninis. The use of riverbanks is by the law of nations public. like that of the stream itself:

Rogationes, quaestiones, et positiones debent esse simplices. Demands, questions, and answers ought to be simple.

Roy n’est lie per ascun statute, sill ne soit expressement nosme. The king is not bound by any statute, if he is not expressly named.

Ruunt magna in se. Great interests (or powers) are apt to clash.

S

Sacrament urn ha bet in se tres comites, veritatem just itiam etjudicium: veritas habcnda est in jurato; justitia et judicium in judice. An oath has in it three components — truth, justice, and judgment: truth in the party swearing, justice and judgment in the judge (administering the oath).

Sacramentum sifatuumfuerit, licetfalsum, tamen non committitperjurium. A foolish oath, though false, does not make perjury.

Sacrilegii instar est rescriptum principis obviare. It is the image of sacrilege to oppose the ruler’s ruling.

Sacrilegus omniumpraedonum cupiditatern etscelerem superat. A sacrilegious person surpasses the greed and wickedness of all other robbers.

Saepe constitutum est res inter aiios judicatas aliis non praejudicare. It has often been settled that matters adjudged between others ought not to prejudice those who were not parties.

Saepenumero ubi proprietas verborum attenditur, sensus veritatis amittitur. Frequently where propriety of words is given attention, the meaning of truth is lost.

Saepe viatorem nova, non vetus, orbitafallit. Often it is the new track, not the old one, that deceives the traveler.

Saluspopuli (est) suprema lex. The safety of the people is the supreme law. • The phrase is sometimes put in the imperative: Salus populi suprema lex esto (let the safety of the people be the supreme law).

Salus reipublicae sup rerna lex. The safety of the state is the supreme law.

Salus ubi multi consiliaril. Where there are many counselors, there is safety.

Sapiens incipit afine, et quodprimum est in intentione, ultimum est in executione. A wise person begins from the end, and what is first in intention is last in execution.

Sapiens omnia agit curn consilio. A wise man does everything advisedly.

Sapientia legis nummario pretio non est aestimanda. No price in money is to be put on the wisdom of the law.

Sapientisjudicis est cogitare tantum sibi essepermissum, quantum commissurn et crediturn. It is the mark of a wise judge to suppose that he is permitted only so much as has been committed and entrusted to him.

Satis dotata si bene morata. A woman is well-enough dowered for a wife if possessed of good morals. 

Satius estpeterefontes quam sectari rivulos. It is better to seek the sources than to follow tributaries.

Satius estprodesse etiam malispropter bonos quarn bonis deesse propter malos. Better to benefit bad men for the sake of the good than to deprive good men on account of the bad. 

Sauve qui peut. Save (yourself) who can. (Or every man for himself, in escaping shipwreck.)

Scelus intra se taciturn qui cogitatfacti crirnen ha bet. He who secretly meditates a crime is guilty of the deed. 

Scientia sciolorum est mixta ignorantia. The knowledge of smatterers is ignorance diluted.

Scientia utrimque par pares contrahentesfacit. Equal knowledge on both sides makes the contracting parties equal.

Scienti et volenti non fit injuria. A wrong is not done to one who knows and assents to it.

Scire debes cum quo contrahis. You ought to know with whom you make an agreement.

Scire etscire debere aequiparantur injure. To know a thing and to be bound to know it are regarded in law as equivalent.

Scire leges non hoc est verba earum tenere, sed vim et po- testatem. To know the laws is to observe not their (mere) words, but their force and power.

Scireproprie est rem rat one etper causam cognoscere. To know properly is to know a thing in its reason and by its cause.

Scribere est agere. To write is to act.

Scriptae obligationes scriptis tolluntur, et nudi consensus obligatlo con trario consensu dissolvitur. Written obligations are undone by writing, and the obligation of mere consent (or naked agreement) is dissolved by a bare consent to the contrary.

Scripta litera manet. The written word endures.

Secta estpugna civilis, sicut actores armantur actionibus, et quasi accingunturgladiis, ita rei (e contra) muniuntur exceptionibus, et defrnduntur quasi clypeis. A suit is a civil battle; just as the plaintiffs are armed with actions and, as it were, girded with swords, so (against them) the defendants are fortified with pleas, and defended as though by shields.

Sanguinis conjunctio benevolentia devincit homines et caritate. A tie of blood o”ercoines human beings through benevolence and family affection. 

Secta quae scripto nititur a scripto variari non debet. A suit that relies on a writing ought not to vary from the writing.

Secundum naturam est commoda cujusque rei eum sequi quem sequentur incommoda. It is according to nature that the advantages in any matter should come to the person to whom the disadvantages will attend.

Securitas legatorum utilitati poenae preponderat. The safety of ambassadors outweighs the expediency of punishment. 

Securius expediuntur negotia commissa pluribus, etplus vident oculi quam oculus. Business entrusted to several people is done more reliably, and (sever1) eyes see more than (one) eye does.

Sed si non prosunt singula, juncta juvant. If things separately do no good, joined together they help.

Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem quam quae sunt oculis subjectafidelibus. What enters through the ear rouses us more sluggishly than what is presented to the trusty eyes. 

Seisinafacitstipitem. Seisin makes the stock.

Semel baro, semper baro. Once a baron, always a baron.

Semel civis semper civis. Once a citizen, always a citizen.

Semel malus semp er praesumitur esse malus in eodem genere. Whoever is once bad is presumed to be so always in the same kind of affair.

Semper in dubiis benigniorapraeferenda sunt. In dubious cases, the more favorable constructions are always to be preferred.

Semper in dubiis id agendum est, ut quam tutissimo loco res sit bonafide contracta, nisi quum aperte contra leges scriptuni est. Always in doubtful cases that is to be done by which a bona fide contract maybe in the safest condition, except when it has been drawn up clearly contrary to law.

Semper in obscuris quod minimum est sequimur. In obscure cases we always follow what is least obscure.

Semper in stipulationibus et in caeteris contra cti bus id sequimur quod actum est. In stipulations and other contracts, we always follow what was done (or agreed to). Dig. 50.17.34.

Semper ita fiat relatio ut valeatdispositio. Let the reference always be so made that the disposition may avail.

Semper necessitas probandi incumbit ei qui agit. The necessity of proving always rests on the claimant.

Semperpraesumiturpro legitimatione puerorum, etfiliatio non potestprobari. The presumption always is in favor of the legitimacy of children, and fihiation cannot be proved.

Semperpraesumitur pro negante. The presumption is always in favor of the one who denies.

Semperpraesumiturpro sententia. The presumption is always in favor of a judgment (or sentence).

Semper pro matrimoniopraesuniitur. There is always a presumption in favor of marriage.

Semper qui non pro hi bet pro se intervenire mandare creditur. A person who does not prohibit the intervention of another in his behalf is always believed to authorize it.

Semper sexus masculinus etiamfaemininum con tinet. The masculine gender always includes the feminine as well. 

Semperspecialiageneralibus insunt. Special clauses are always included in general ones.

Senatores sunt partes corporis regis. Senators are part of the body of the king.

Sensus verborum estanima legis. The meaning of words is the spirit of the law.

Sensus verborum est duplex, niitis et asper, et verba semper accipienda sunt in mitiore sensu. The meaning of words is twofold, mild and harsh; and words are always to be received in their milder sense.

Sensus verborum cx causa dicendi accipiendus est, et sermones semper accipiendi sunt secundum subjectam materiam. The sense of words is to be taken from the occasion of speaking them, and discourses are always to be interpreted according to the subject matter.

Sententia a non judice lata nemini debet nocere. A judgment pronounced by one who is not a judge should harm no one.

Sententia contra matrimonium nun quam transit in rem judicatarn. A sentence against marriage never becomes a final judgment (i.e., res judicata).

Sententiafacitjus, et legis interpretatio legis vim obtinet. The judgment creates the right, and the interpretation of the law obtains the force of law.

Sentcntiafacitjus, et resjudicata pro veritate accipitur. The judgment creates the right, and what is adjudicated is taken for truth.

Sen ten tia interlocutoria revocari potest, definitiva non potest. An interlocutory judgment may be revoked, but not a final one.

Sententia non fertur de rebus non liquidis. Judgment is not given on matters that are not citar.

Sequamur vestigiapatrum nostrorum. Let us follow in the footsteps of our fathers.

Sequi debet potentia justitiam, non praecedere. Power should follow justice, not precede it.

Serjeantia idem est quod servitium. Ser;eantry is the same as service. 

Sermo index animi. Speech is an index of the mind.

Sermones semper accipiendi sunt secundum subjectam materiam et conditionum personarum. Pleadings are to be construed by reference to the subject matter of the cause and the condition of the parties making them. 

Sermo relatus ad personam intelligi debet de conditione personae. A speech relating to the person is to be understood as relating to his condition. 4 Co. 16.

Servanda estconsuetudo loci ubi causa agitur. The custom of the place where the action is brought is to be observed. Servate terminos quospatres vestri posuere. Preserve the landmarks which your fathers have setup.

Servile est expilationis crimen; sola innocentia libera. The crime of plundering (Or looting) is slavish; innocence alone is free.

Servitiapersonalia sequunturpersonarn. Personal services follow the person (of the lord). • Such “personal services” were those “annexed to the person of the Mesne, as horn- age, fealty, etc.” 2 Co. Inst. 374.

Servitus est constitutio de juregentiutn, qua quis domino alieno contra naturam subjicitur. Slavery is an institution by the law of nations by which a man is subjected to a foreign master, contrary to nature. Co. Litt. 1 16b.

Si aes pro auro veneat non valet. If bronze is sold for gold (the contract) is invalid. 

Si a jure discedas, vagus ens et erunt omnia omnibus incerta. If you depart from the law, you will wander (without a guide), and everything will be in a state of uncertainty to everyone.

Si alicujus rei societas sit etfinis negotio impositus est,finitur societas. If there is a partnership in any matter, and the business is ended, the partnership ceases.

Si aliquid ex solemnibus deficiat, cum aequitas poscit subveniendum est. If anything is lacking from formal requirements, when equity requires, it will be supplied.

Si assuetis mederipossis, nova non sunt tentanda. If you can be relieved by accustomed remedies, new ones should not be tried.

Sic enim debere quem meliorem agrum suumfacere, ne vic mi detenioremfaciat. Everyone ought so to improve his land as not to injure his neighbor’s.

Sic interpretandum est ut verba accipiantur cum effectu. Such an interpretation is to be made that the words may be taken with effect.

Sicut ad quaestionemfacti. non respondentjudices, ita ad quastionemjunis, non respondent juratores. In as much as the judges do not decide on questions of fact, so the jury do not decide on questions of law.

Sicut beatius est, ita majus est, dare quam accipere. Just as it is happier (or more blessed), it is also greater to give than to receive. 

Sic utere tuo Ut alienum non laedas. Use your property so as not to damage another’s; so use your own as not to injure another’s property.

Sicut natura nilfacit per saltum, ita nec lex. Just as nature does nothing with a leap, so neither does the law.

Sicutsubditus regi tenetur ad obedientiarn, ita rex subdito tenetur ad protectionem. Inasmuch as a subject is bound to obey the king, so the king is bound to protect the subject. 7 Co. 5a.

Si duo in testamentopugnantia reperientur, ultimum est ratum. If two conflicting provisions are found in a will, the latter is decisive.

Sigillum est cera imp ressa, quia cern sine impressione non est sigillum. A seal is a piece of wax impressed, because wax without an impression is not a seal.

Si ingratum dixeris, omnia dixeris. If you declare a man ungrateful, you have said it all. (Based on Publilius Syrus, Dixeris maledicta cuncta, etc.)

Sijudicas, cognosce. If you judge, understand.

Silentium in senatu est vitium. Silence in the senate is a fault.

Silent leges inter arma. Laws are silent amid arms.

Si meliores sunt quos ducit amor, plures sunt quos corrigit timor. If the better are those whom love leads, the greater number are those whom fear corrects.

Similitudo legalis est casuum diversorum inter se collatorum similis ratios quod in uno sirnilium valet, valebit in altero. Legal similarity is a similar reason that governs various cases when compared with each other, for what avails in one similar case will avail in the other.

Simonia est voluntas sive desiderium emendi vel vendendi spiritualia vel spinitualibus adhaerentia. Contractus ex turpi causa est et contra bonos mores. Simony is the will or desire of buying or selling spiritualities, or things pertaining to them. It is a contract founded on a bad cause, and against morality.

Simplex commendatia non obligat. A simple recommendation does not bind.

Simplex etpura donatio dicipoterit ubi nulla est adjecta conditio nec modus. A gift is said to be pure and simple when no condition or qualification has been annexed.

Simplicitas est legi bus amica, et nirnia subtilitas injure reprobatur. Simplicity is a friend to the laws, and too much subtlety in law is condemned.

Sine possessione usucapio procedere non potest. Without possession, prescription (Roman usucapio) cannot proceed.

Singuli in solidum tenentur. Each individual is bound for the whole.

Si non appareat quid actum est, erit consequens ut id sequamur quod in regione in qua actum estfrequentatur. If it is not clear what was done (or agreed on), the consequence will be that we follow what is commonly done in the place where the agreement was made. Dig. 50.17.34.

Si nulla sit conjectura quae ducat allo, verba intelligenda sunt exproprietate, non grammatica sedpopulari cx usu. If there is no inference that leads to a different result, words are to be understood according to their proper meaning, not in a grammatical but in a popular and ordinary sense.

Siplures conditiones ascniptaefuerunt donationi conjunctim, omnibus estparendum; et ad veritatem copulative requiritur quod Ut raque pars Sit vera, si divisim, quilibet vel alien eorum satis est obtemperare; et in disjunctivis, sufficit alteram pantem esse veram. If several conditions are conjunctively written in a gift, the whole of them must be complied with; and with respect to their truth, it is necessary that every part be true, taken jointly: if the conditions are separate, it is sufficient to comply with either one or the other of them; and being disjunctive, that one or the other be true.

Siplures smntfidejussores, quotquot erunt numero, singuli in solidunt tenentur. If there are more sureties than one, however many they will be in number, they are individually liable for the whole.

Si quidem in nornine, cognomine, praenomine, legatarii erraverit testator, cum depersona constat, nihilominus valet legatum. Although a testator mayhave mistaken the nomen, cognomen, or praenomen of a legatee, yet, if it be certain who is the person meant, the legacy is valid. Just. Inst. 2.20.29.

Si quid universitati debetur, singulis non debetur, nec quod debet universitas singuli debent. If anything is due to a corporation, it is not due to the individual members of it, nor do the members individually owe what the corporation owes.

Si quis curn totum petiissetpartempetat, exceptio reijudicatae vocet. If anyone sues for a part when he should have sued for the whole, the judgment should constitute res judicata (against another suit).

Si quis custosfraudempupillofecenit, a tutela removendus est. If a guardian commits fraud against his ward, he is to be removed from the guardianship.

Si quis praegnan tern uxorem reliquit, non videtur sine Iibenis decessisse. If anyone dies leaving his wife pregnant, he is not considered as having died childless.

Si quis quid de republica afinitimis rumore autfama accepenit, uti ad magi stratum deferat, neve cun quo alto communicet. If anyone receive from his neighbors anything affecting the republic, by rumor or report, let him lay it before the magistrate, and not convey it to another person. Caesar, Gallic War 6.20.

Si quis unum percusserit cum aliumpercutere vellet, infelonia tenetur. If a person kills one when he meant to kill another, he is held guilty of felony.

Si suggestio non sit vera, lit eraepatentes vacuae sunt. If the suggestion is not true, the letters patent are void.

Sive tota res evincatur, sive pars, ha bet regressum emptor in vendito rem. If the property is taken from the purchaser by eviction, whether whole or in part, he has an action against the vendor. Dig. 21.2.1.

Si vispacem, para bellum. If you want peace, prepare for war.

Socagium idem est quod servitium socae. Socage is the same as service of the plough. Co. Lit 86a.

Socii mel socius tneus socius non est. The partner of my partner is not my partner.

Socilpiures sunt quasi unum corpus, in eo quod unumjus ha bent, et oportet quod corpus sit integrum et quod in nulla parte sit deft ctus. Several partners are as one body, since they have one right, and it is necessary that the body be perfect, and that there be defect in no part.

Sodales legem quam volent, dum ne quid ex publica lege corrumpant, sibiferunto. Let the associates (or partners) make for themselves what law they choose, so long as they do not violate any provision of the public law. 1 Bi. Corn. (ch. 18) 64.

Sola acper se senectus donationem, testamentum aut transactionem non vitiat. Old age does not alone and of itself vitiate gift, will or transaction.

Sola innocentia libera. Innocence alone is free.

Solemnitas intervenire debet in mutatione liberi tenementi, ne contingat donationem deficere pro defectu probationis. Solemnity (or formality) ought to be observed in an exchange of free tenement, lest it happen that the gift fail through want of proof. Co. Litt. 48a.

Solemnitatesjuris sunt obser-vandae. The solemnities of law must be observed.

Solicita atque anxia etiam in solitudine mala conscientia est. A bad conscience even in solitude is anxious and disturbed.

Solo cedit quod solo implantatur. What is planted in the soil belongs to the soil. • This maxim is sometimes written Solo cedit, quicquid solo plantatur (translatable as “what is affixed to the soil belongs to the soil”).

Solo cedit quod solo inaedificatur. Whatever is built on the soil belongs to the soil.

Sol sine homine generat herbam. The sun makes the grass grow without man’s assistance.

Solum rex hoc non facere potest—quod non potest injuste agere. One thing alone the king cannot do—he cannot act unjustly.

Solus Deusfacit haeredem, non homo. God alone, not the man, makes the heir.

Solus Deus haeredemfacit. God alone makes the heir.

Solutio pretii einptionis loco habetur. The payment of the price stands in the place of a sale.

Solvendo esse nemo intelligitur nisi qui solidum pot est solvere. No one is understood to be in a state of solvency except the one who can pay all that he owes. Dig. 50.16.114.

Solvitur adhuc societa.s etiam morte socii. A partnership is also dissolved by the death of a partner.

Solvitur eo ligamine quo ligatur. It is released by the bond with which it is bound.

Solvitur in modo solventis. A payment is made for the purpose the payer intends.

Sommonitiones aut citationes nullae liceantfieri infrapalatium regis. No summonses or citations should be permitted to be served within the king’s palace.

Specilia generalibus derogant. Special words derogate from general ones.

Spes est vigilantis somnium. Hope is the dream of a waking man. 4 Inst. 203.

Spes impunitatis continuum affectum tribuit delinquendi. The hope of impunity supplies a constant inclination to wrongdoing.

Spoliatus debet ante omnia rest itui. A party forcibly deprived of possession ought first of all to have restitution.

Spoliatus episcopus ante omnia debet restitui. A bishop despoiled of his see ought, above all, to be restored.

Spondetperitiam artls. He promises (to use) the skill of his art. • That is, he engages to do the work in a skillful manner.

Sponsalia dicunturfuturarum nuptiarum conventio et repromissio. A betrothal is the agreement and promise of a future marriage.

Sponsalia inter minores contra cta ante septem annos nulla sunt. Betrothals contracted between parties under seven years of age are void.

Sponte virumfugiens mulier et adulterafacta, doti sua careat, nisi sponsi sponte retracta. A woman leaving her husband of her own accord and committing adultery should lose her dower, unless she is taken back by her husband of his own accord.

Stabitpraesumptio donec pro betur in contrarium. A presumption will stand until proof is given to the contrary.

Stare decisis et non quieta movere. Literally, to stand by previous decisions and not to disturb settled matters; to adhere to precedents and not to depart from established principles.

Stat pro ratione voluntas. The will stands in place of a reason.

Stat pro ratione voluntas populi. The will of the people stands in place of a reason.

Statuta ita interpretanda Ut innoxiis ne obsint. Statutes are to be so interpreted that they do not hurt the innocent.

Statutapropublico commodo late interpretantur. Statutes made for the public advantage ought to be broadly construed.

Statuta suo clauduntur territorio, nec ultra territorium disponunt. Statutes are confined to their own territory and have no extraterritorial effect.

St at utum affirmativum non derogat communi legi. An affirmative statute does not take away from the common law.

Statutum exgratia regis dicitur quando rex dignatur Cedere de jure suo reglo pro commodo et quietepopuli sui. A statute is said to be by the grace of the king when the king deigns to yield some portion of his royal rights for the good and quiet of his people. 2 Inst. 378.

Statutum generaliter est intelligendum quando verba statuti sunt specialia, ratio autem generalis. A statute is to be understood generally when the words of the statute are special but its reason is general.

Statutum speciale statuto speciali non derogat. One special statute does not take away from another special statute.

Sua cuique domus arx esto. Let every man’s house be his castle.

Subiata causa tollitur effectus. Remove the cause and the effect ceases.

Subiata veneratione magistratuum, respublica ruit. When respect for magistrates has been destroyed, the commonwealth perishes.

Sublatofundamento, cadit opus. When the foundation has been removed (or demolished), the structure collapses.

Sublatoprincipali, toilitur adjunctum. When the prfhcipal has been taken away, the adjunct is also taken away.

Subornare est quasi subtus in aure ipsum male ornare, unde subornatio dicitur defalsi expressione, aut de yen suppressione. To suborn; as it were, is to supply the act itself in the ear (of another) underhandly and wickedly, from which subornation describes the expression of what is false, or the suppression of what is true. 3 Inst. 167.

Subrogatio est transfusio unius creditoris in alium eadem vel mitioni conditione. Subrogation is the substituting one creditor in the place of another in the same or a better condition.

Subsequens matnimonium toiiitpeccatum praecedens. A subsequent marriage removes the previous sin.

Substantia prior et dig nior est accidente. The substance is prior and of more worth than the accident.

Succurritur minori;faciiis est iapsusjuventutis. Aid is given to a minor; easy is the slip-up of youth (i.e., youth is liable to err).

Summa caritas estfacerejustitiam singulis et omni tern- pore quando necessefuerit. The greatest charity is to do justice to each individual and at every time when it is necessary.

Summa est lex quae pro religionefacit. The highest law is the one that acts on behalf of religion.

Summa ratio est quae pro religionefacit. The highest reason is that which acts in favor of religion. • Also found in indirect form, Summam esse rationem quae pro religione facit.

Summi cujusque bonitas commune perfugium est omnium. The goodnesss of every great man is the common refuge of all.

Summum jus, summa injuria. The highest right is the Utmost injury. • That is, law too rigidly interpreted produces the greatest injustice.

Superfaiso et certofingitur, super incerto et vero jure sumitur. A fiction assumes that the thing feigned is certainly untrue.

Superficies solo cedit. The surface goes with the land. • That is, whatever is attached to the land forms part of it.

Super fidem chartarum, mortuis testibus, erit ad patriam de necessitate recurrendum. The truth of charters is necessarily to be referred to a jury when the witnesses are dead.

Superflua non nocent. Superfluities do no injury.

Sup erflua obstant defrctiva perimunt. Superfluous things oppose; defective things destroy.

Suppressio yen, expressiofaisi. Suppression of the truth (is equivalent to) the expression of what is false.

Suppressio yen, suggestiofalsi. Suppression of the truth (is equivalent to) the suggestion of what is false.

Surplusagium non nocet. Extraneous matter does no harm. • Superfluous allegations, not proper to the case, should have no effect.

Surrogatum sapit naturam surrogati. A thing substituted partakes of the nature of the thing for which it was substituted.

Suum cuique incommodumferendurn estpotius quam de altenius commodis detrahendum. Each one must bear his own burdens rather than deprive another of his advantages. Cicero, De Officiis 3.6.30.