MAXIMS

T

Tacita quaedam habentur pro expressis. Certain things though unexpressed are considered as expressed.

Talis certitudo certitudinem confundit. Such (show of) certainty confounds (real) certitude.

Talis concordiafinalis dicitureo quodfinem imponit negot b, adeo quod neutra pars litigantiurn, ab eo de caetero potent recedere. A final concord is that by which an end is put to the business, from which moreover neither litigant can recede.

Tails interpretatio semperfienda est ut evitetur absurdurn, et inconveniens, et nejudicium sit illusonium. Interpretation is always to be made in such a manner that what is absurd and improper is avoided, and so that the judgment is not a mockery.

Tails non est eadem, nam nullurn simile est idem. “Such” is not “the same,” for nothing similar is the same thing.

Tails Yes, vel tale rectum, quae vel quod non est in homine adtunc superstite sed tantummodo est et consistit in consideratione et intelligentia legis, et quod alii dixenunt talern rem vel tale rectum fore in nubi bus. Such a thing or such a right as is not vested in a person then living, but merely exists in the consideration and contemplation of law [is said to be in abeyance,] and others have said that such a thing or such a right is in the clouds.

Tantum bona valent, quantum vendipossunt. Things are worth as much as they can be sold for.

Tan turn concessurn quantum scriptum. So much is granted as is written.

Tantum habentde lege, quantum habent de just itia. (Precedents) have value in the law to the extent that they represent justice.

Tantum operaturfictio in casuficto quantum veritas in casu vero. A legal fiction operates to the same extent and effect in the supposed case as the truth does in a real case.

Tantum praescriptum quantum possessum. There is only prescription insofar as there has been possession.

Tempts regitfactum. Time rules events.

Temp us enim modus toilendi obligationes et actiones, quia tempus currit contra desides et sui juris contemptores. For time is a means of destroying obligations and actions, because time runs against those who are inactive and show little respect for their own rights.

Tempus ex suapte natura vim nuilam effectnicem ha bet. Time, of its own nature, has no effectual force.

Tempus mortis inspiciendum. (One must) look to the time of death.

Tempus regitfactum. Time rules events.

Tenens doniinofidem praestare debita servitia tenetur, et dominus invicern tenenti protectionem etjura sua omnia. A tenant is bound to show good faith and render services owed to his landlord, and the landlord, in turn, to protect the tenant in all his rights.

Tenens nilfacere pot est, propter obligationem homagii, quod vertatur domino ad exhaeredationem. A tenant, by force of the obligation of homage by which he takes title, can do nothing that tends to disinherit his landlord. Co. Litt. 65.

Tenor estpactio contra conimunemfeudi naturam ac rationem in contractu interposita. The tenure (of an agreement) is a compact contrary to the common nature and reason of the fee, put into a contract.

Tenor est qui legem datfeudo. It is the tenor that gives law to the fee. • That is, the tenor of the feudal grant regulates its effect and extent.

Tenor investiturae est inspiciendus. The tenor of an investiture is to be scrutinized.

Terminus annoruin certus debet esse et determinatus. A term of years ought to be certain and definite (with a fixed end).

Terminus et (ac)feodum non possunt constare simul in una eademque persona. Term and fee cannot both be vested in one and the same person at the same time.

Terra manens vacua occupanti conceditur. Land lying unoccupied is given to the occupant.

Terra sterilis, cx vi term in est terra infoecunda, nullum ferensfructum. Sterile land is by force of the term barren, bearing no fruit.

Terra transit cum onere. Land passes with the incumbrances.

Tertium non datur. There is no third (option).

Testamenta, cum duo inter se pugnantia reperiuntur, ultimum ratum est; sic est, cum duo inter sepugnantia reperiuntur in eodem testamento. When two conflicting wills are found, the last prevails; so it is when two conflicting clauses occur in the same will.

Testamenta latissimam interpretationein habere debent. Wills ought to have the broadest interpretation.

Testamentum est testatio mentis, facta nub praesente metupericuli, sed cogitatione mortalitatis. A will is a witnessing of the mind, made in view of the uncertainty of human life, but in no present fear of danger.

Testamentum est voluntatis nostrae justa sententia, de eo quod quis post mortem suamfleri velit. A testament is the just expression of our will concerning that which anyone wishes done after his death. • Or, as Blackstone renders it, a testament is “the legal declaration of a man’s intentions which he wills to be performed after his death.” 2 BI. Corn. 499.

Testamentum omne morte consummatum. Every will is completed by death.

Testatoris ultima voluntas est perimplenda secundum veram intentionein suam. The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his true intention.

Testes ponderantur, non numerantur. Witnesses are weighed, not numbered.

Testes qui postulat debet dare eis sumptus competentes. Whoever demands witnesses ought to give them suitable expenses.

Testibus deponentibus in pan numero, dignioribus est credendum. When the number of witnesses giving testimofly is equal on both sides, the more trustworthy are to be believed.

Testibus, non testimoniis, credendum est. The witnesses must be believed, not (simply) their testimony.

Testinionia ponderanda sunt, non numeranda. Testimonies are to be weighed, not counted.

Testis de visupraeponderat aliis. An eyewitness outweighs others.

Testis dicere debet ab imo, “non sum doctus nec instructus, nec curo de victoria, modo ministretur Just itia.” A witness should be able to say from the heart, “I am not informed nor instructed, nor do I care which party be successful, provided Justice be served.” 4 Inst. 279.

Testis lupananis suffi cit adfactum in lupanari. Someone from a brothel is a sufficient witness to a happening in a brothel.

Testis nemo in sua causa essepotest. No one can be a witness in his own cause.

Testis oculatus unus plus valet quam auriti decem. One eyewitness is worth more than ten earwitnesses.

Testium numerus si non adjicitur, duo sufficiunt. If the number of witnesses is not prescribed, two are sufficient. 4 Inst. 279.

Testmoignes nepoent testifier le negative, nies taffirmative. Witnesses cannot testify to a negative; they must testify to an affirmative.

Theft bote est emendafurti capta, sine consideratione curiae domini regis. Theftbote is compensation taken for the theft, without consideration from the king’s court. 3 Inst. 134.

Thesaurus competit domino regi, et non domino libertatis nisi sit per verba specialia. A treasure belongs to the king, and not to the lord of a liberty, unless it be through special words.

Thesaurus inventus est vetus dispositio pecuniae, &c., cujus non extat modo memoria, adeo Ut jam dominum non ha beat. Treasure trove is an ancient hiding of money, etc., of which no recollection exists, so that it now has no owner.

Thesaurus non competit regi, nisi quando nemo scit qui abscondit thesaurum. Treasure does not belong to the king, unless no one knows who hid it;

Timores vani sunt aestimandi qui non cadunt in constantern virum. Those fears must be considered vain (or frivolous) that do not affect a man of steady character.

Titius haeres esto. Let Titius be my heir. • Titius was the Roman counterpart of John Doe.

Titulus est justa causapossidendi id quod nostrum est. Title is the just cause of possessing that which is ours.

Tolle voluntatem et erit omnis actus indifferens. Take away the will, and every action will be indifferent.

Tortura legurn pessima. The torture (or twisting) of laws is the worst kind of torture.

Totumpraefertur unicuiqueparti. The whole is preferred to any single part.

Toutce que Ia lvi ne defend pas est permis. Everything that the law does not forbid is permitted.

Toute exception non surveillée tend a prendre laplace du principe. Every exception not watched tends toassume the place of the principle.

Tractent fabriliafabri. Let smiths perform the work of smiths.

Traditio loquifacit chartam. Delivery makes the deed (document) speak.

Traditione pacta firmantur. Agreements are confirmed by delivery.

Traditionibus et usucapionibus, non nudispactis, transferuntur rerum dominia. Rights of property are transferred by delivery and by prescription (founded on lengthy possession), not by naked agreements.

Traditio nihil amplius transferre debet vel potest ad euin qul accipit quam est apud eum qui tradit. Delivery neither can nor should transfer anything more to the recipient than is in possession of the one who delivers.

Trado tibi ecclesiam. I deliver this church (or living) to you.

Trahi non debent in argurnentuin quaepropter necessitatern recepta sunt. Things that are received on account of necessity otight not to be drawn into argument.

Transfrruntur dominia sine titulo et traditione, per usucaptionem, scil., per longam continuam etpacificam possessionem. Rights of dominion are transferred without title or delivery, by usucaption, to wit, long and undisturbed possession.

Transgressio est curn modus non servatur nec mensura, debit enim quilibet in suo facto modum ha be re et mensuram. Transgression is when neither mode nor measure is preserved, for every one in his act ought to have a mode and measure.

Transgressione multiplicata, crescat poenae inflictio. When transgression is repeated, let the infliction of punishment be increased

Transit in rem judicatam. It passes into a judgment.

Transit terra cum onere. The land passes with its burdens.

Tresfaciunt coil egium. Three form a corporation.

Triatio ibi semper debetfieri ubi juratores meliorempossunthabere notitiam. Trial ought always to be held where the jurors can have the better information.

Triennalis pacificus possessor beneficii est inde securus. The undisturbed possessor of a benefice for three years is thereafter secure (from challenge).

Tristibus et tacitis non fidendum. Melancholy and secretive persons must not be trusted. 

Turpe est viro id in quo quotidie versatur ignorare. It is shameful for a man to be ignorant of the business in which he is engaged every day.

Turpe impossibile. An impossibility is shameful.

Turpis est pars quae non convenit cum suo toto. The part is bad that does not accord with its whole.

Tuta est custodia quae sibimet creditur. The guardianship is secure that is entrusted to itself alone.

Tutius erraturexparte mitiori. It is safer to err on the gentler side (or on the side of leniency).

Tutius est rei incumbere quam personae. It is safer to rely on a thing than on a person. • Real security is safer than personal security.

Tutius semper est errare in acquietando quam inpuniendo, exparte rnisericordiae quarn expartejustitiae. It is always safer to err in acquitting than in punishing, (and) on the side of mercy than of justice.

Tutor incertus dan non potest. An uncertain person cannot be given or appointed as tutor.

Tutor in rem suam auctorfieri non potest. A tutor cannot act for his own interest.

Tutor praesumitur intus habere, ante redditas rationes. A tutor is presumed to have funds in his own hands until his accounts have been rendered.

Tutor rem pupilli emere non potest. A tutor cannot purchase the property of his ward.

U

Ubi aliquid conceditur, conceditur et id sine quo res ipsa esse non potest. When anything is granted, that also is granted without which the thing itself cannot exist.

Ubi aliquid itnpediturpropter unum, eo remoto, tollitur impedimentum. When anything is impeded by reason of one thing, when that is removed, the impediment is removed.

Ubi cessat remedium ordinarium, ibi decurnitur ad extraordinanium. When a common remedy ceases to be of service, recourse is had to an extraordinary one.

Ubi concurrent commune jus et jus scripturn, communi standum. Where common and written law clash, we must stand by the common law.

Ubi cuipa est, ibi poena subesse debet. Where the fault is, there the punishment should be imposed.

Ubicunque est injuria, ibi damnum sequitur. Wherever there is a legal wrong, there damage follows.

Ubi damna dantur victus victori in expensis condemnari debet. Where damages are awarded, the party that did not succeed ought to be adjudged to pay expenses for the party that prevailed.

Ubi dive rso jure in eandem rem venire quispotuit, eojure venisse praesumitur quad fortius ac melius sit. Where one could have come to same thing by different rights, he is presumed to have arrived at it by the stronger and better right.

Ubi duo jura concurrunt in eadem persona, idem est ac si esset in diversis. Where two rights run together (or clash) in the same person, it is the same as if it were in different persons.

Ubi duo pugnantia in charta concurrunt, prius ratum esto. Where two repugnant things meet in a charter, let the first be established.

Ubi duo sensus occurrunt, mitiori standunt. Where two meanings occur, we must abide by the milder.

Ubi eadem ratio, ibi eadem lex; et de similibus idem est judicium. Where the same reason exists, there the same law prevails; and, of things similar, the judgment is the same.

Ubi eadem ratio, ibi idemjus. Where there is the same reason, there is the same law. — Also rendered Ubi eadem est ratio, ibi idem estjus.

Ubi eadem ratio, ibi idemjus; et de similibus idem estjudicium. Where there is the same reason, there is the same law; and the same judgment should be rendered on comparable facts.

Ubi est forum, ibi ergo est jus. Where the forum (or place of jurisdiction) is, there accordingly is the law.

Ubi et dantis et accipientis turpitudo versatur, non posse repeti dicimus; quotiens autem accipientis turpitudo versatur, repeti posse. Where there is misconduct on the part of both giver and receiver, we say the thing cannot be recovered; but as often as the misconduct is on the side of the receiver (alone), it can be recovered.

Ubi exjurepositivo alicujus gentLc reo conceditur vel prohibetur leges Angliae jus ejus gentis in judicio respiciunt ubi actio accrevit. Where a grant is given or a prohibition made to an accused person by a positive law, the laws of England regards the law of the nation where the action arose, in adjudicating the same.

Ubifactum nullum, ibifortia nufla. Where there is no fact, there are no strong points.

Ubijus, ibi rernediuin. Where there is a right, there is a remedy.

Ubijus incertum, ibi jus nullurn. Where the right is uncertain, there is no right.

Ubi lex aliquem cogit ostendere causarn, necesse est quod causa sit justa et legitima. Where the law compels someone to show cause, it is necessary that the cause be just and legal.

Ubi lex communis et aequitas in eadem re versantur, aequitas alia via agitsed non alitersentit. Where common law and equity are involved in the same case, equity takes a different path but feels no differently (or has the same attitude).

Ubi lex deest, praetor supplet. Where the law is deficient, the praetor supplies the deficiency.

Ubi lex est specious et ratio ejus general is, generaliter accipienda est. Where the law is special and the reason of it is general, it ought to be taken as general.

Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus. Where the law does not distinguish, we ought not to distinguish.

Ubi major pars est, jiji totum. Where the greater part is, there is the whole.

Ubi matrimonium, ibi dos. Where there is marriage, there is dower.

Ubi non adest norma legis, omnia quasi pro su.cpectis habenda sunt. Where there is no rule of law, everything must be held, as it were, suspect.

Ubi non apparet dominus rei, quae olimfuerunt inventoris dejure naturali, jam efficiunturpriñcipisjure gentiurn. Where the owner does not appear, those things which once belonged to the finder by the law of nature are now made property of the ruler by the law of nations

Ubi non eat annua renovatlo, ibi decirnae non debentsolvi. Where there is no annual renovation, there tithes should not be paid.

Ubi non est condendi auctoritas, ibi non estparendi necessitas. Where there is no authority to establish (a rule), there is no necessity to obey.

Ubi non est directa lex, standum est arbltrio judicis, vel procedendum ad simllia. Where there is not direct law, one must rely on the judgment of the judge or refer to similar cases.

Ubi non est lex, ibi non eat transgressio quoad rnundum. Where there is not law, there is not transgression, as far as this world is concerned.

Ubi non eat manifesto injustitia, judices habentur pro bonis viris, et judicatum pro veritate. Where there is no manifest injustice, the judges are to be regarded as honest men, and their judgment as truth.

Ubi non estprincipalis, non potest ease accessorius. Where there is no principal, there can be no accessory.

Ubi nulla est conjectura quae ducat alio, verba intelligenda sunt exproprietate non grammatica sedpopulari cx usu. Where there is no inference that would lead in another direction, the words are to be understood according to their proper meaning, not strictly according to grammar but according to popular usage.

Ubi nullum matrimonium, ibi nulla dos. Where there is no marriage, there is no dower.

Ubi nullumplacitum, ibi nulium essonium. Where there is no plea, there is no essoin. Bracton 341.

Ubi onus ibi emolumentum. Where the burden is, there is the profit or advantage.

Ubi periculum, ibi et lucrurn collocatur. Where the risk is, there also the profit accrues.

Ubipugnantia interse in testamentojuberentur, neutrum raturn eat. When two directions conflicting with each other were given in a will, neither is held valid.

Ubi quid generaliterconceditur, inesthaec exceptio, si non aliquid sit contra jusfasque. Where a thing is granted in general terms, this exception is implied: if there is not anything contrary to law and right.

Ubi quis delin quit ibipunietur. Where anyone commits an offense, there will he be punished.

Ubi remedium, ibi ius. Where there is a remedy, there is a right.

Ubi societas, ibi ius. Wherever there is society, there is law.

Ubi susfuleris revocationem, renatum est tea famentum. When you have taken away the revocation, the will is reborn.

Ubi verba conjuncta non aunt, suffi cit alterutrum ease facturn. Where words are not conjoined, it is enough that one or another (of the things enumerated) has been done.

Ubi vetat quid lex nequepoenam statuit, poena in discretionejudicle eat. Where the law forbids anything and has not prescribed a punishment, the punishment is in the discretion of the judge.

Ultima voluntas esset libera. The last will should be free (or unconstrained).

Ultima voluntas testatoris est perimplenda secundurn veram intentionem suam. The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his true intention.

Ultimum supplicium esse mortem solam interpretamur. We consider death alone to be the extreme punishment.

Ultra posse nerno tenet ur. Nobody is held beyond his ability.

Ultra posse non potest ease et vice versa. What is beyond possibility cannot exist, and the reverse (what cannot exist is not possible).

Una electa via non datur recursus ad alterarn. Once one path has been chosen it allows no recourse to another.

Una persona vixpotest aupplere vices duarum. One person can scarcely supply the place of two.

Unaquaequegleba servit. Every lump of earth (on the land) is subject to the servitude.

Uniuscujusque contractus Initium spectandum est et causa. The beginning and cause of each and every contract must be considered.

Unius omnino testis responsio non audiatur. Let the evidence of one witness not be heard at all.

Univeralia sunt notiora singularibus. Things universal are better known than things particular.

Universitas ye? corporatio non dicitur alzquidfacere nisi id sit coflegialiter deliberatum, etiamsi major pars idfaciat. A university or corporation is not said to take any action unless the action was resolved by it as a body, even if a greater part of the body should act.

Universus terminus in lege dies unus. One day is a complete term in law.

Un ne doit prise advantage de son tort demesne. One should not take advantage from his own wrong.

Uno absurdo dato, infinita sequuntur. When one absurdity has been allowed, an infinity follows.

Unurnquodque dissolvitur eodem ligamine quo ligatur. Everything is dissolved by the same binding by which it is bound together.

Unumquodque eodem modo dissolvitur quo colligatur. Any obligation is discharged in the same manner as it is constituted.

Unumquodque eodem modo quo colligatum est dissolvitur, quo constituitur, destruitur. Everything is dissolved by the same means by the same means it was put together, destroyed by the same means by which it was established.

Unumquodque est Id quod estprincipalius In ipso. That which is the principal part of a thing is the thing itself.

Unumquodque ligamen dissolvitur eodem ligamine quiet ligatur. Every obligation is dissolved in the same manner in which it is contracted.

Unumquodque principiorum est sibimet ipsifides; etperspicua vera non sunt pro banda. Each and.every one of the general principles is its own pledge of trust, and plain truths need not be proved.

Unusquisque debet esse gnarus conditionis ejus cum quo contrahit. Everyone ought to be cognizant of the condition of the person with whom he makes contract.

Unusquisquepaci et just itiaepub?icae tenetursuccurrere. Every one is bound tà support peace and public justice.

Usucapio constituta est ut aliquis litiumfinis esset. Prescription (Roman usucapio) was instituted that there might be some end to lawsuits. 

Usura dicitur quia datur pro usu aeris. Usury is so called because it is given for the use of money. 2 Inst. 89.

Usus est dominium fiduciarium. Use is a fiduciary ownership.

Ususfitex iteratis actibus. Usage arises from repeated acts.

Utatur nemo duobus officils. No one man should exercise two offices. 4 Coke Inst. 100.

Utile per inutile non vitiatur. What is useful is not vitiated by the useless.

Utipossidetis, ita possideatis. As you possess, so you should possess.

Utlagatus est quasi extra legem positus: caput gent lupinum. An outlaw is, as it were, put out of the protection of the law: he carries the head of a wolf.

Utlagatus pro con tumacia etfuga non propter hoc convictus est defacto principali. One who is outlawed for contempt and flight is not on that account convicted of the principal act.

“Ut” modus est, “Si” conditio, “quia” causa, inesse potest donationi modus conditio sive causa. In a gift there may a manner, a condition, and a cause: the word “that” introduces a manner, the word “if,” a condition, and the word “because,” a cause. 

Utpoena ad paucos, metus ad omnesperveniat. Let punishment come to few, dread to all. 4 Coke 124b.

Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. (Interpret the law, contract, etc.) so that the transaction is upheld rather than lost (or so that a matter may avail rather than perish). • The phrase can be literally translated as “that the matter may have effect rather than fail.”

Utsummaepotestatis regis est posse quantum velit, sic magnitudinis est velle quantum possit. As the highest power of a king is to be able to do all he wishes, so the highest greatness of him is to wish as much as he is able to do. 

Uxor furl desponsata non tenebitur exfacto yin. The wife of a thief shall not be bound by the act of her husband. 

V

Vagabundum nuncupamus eum qui nullibi domicilium contraxit habitationis. We call the person a vagabond who has acquired nowhere a domicile of residence.

Valeat quantum valerepotest. Let it have effect as far as it can have effect.

Valet illatio ab actu adpotentiam. Logical inference from the act is valid for the possibility. (We are able to judge the future from what has happened in the past).

Valet nun quam confirmatio nisi ille qui confirmat sit in possessione rei vel junis undefieri debet confirmatio; et eodem mothi nisi ille cui confirmatio fit, sit in possessione. Confirmation is not valid unless he who confirms is either in possession of the thing itself or of the right of which confirmation is to be made, and, in like manner, unless he to whom confirmation is made is in possession. 

Vana est illa potentia quae nun quam venit in actum. Vain is that power that never comes into action.

Vani timores sunt aestimandi, qui non cadunt in constantern virern. Those fears are to be considered groundless that do not affect a man of steady character.

Vani timoris justa excusatio non est. There is no legal excuse based on a groundless fear.

Vectigal, origine ipsa, jus caesa rum et regurn patrirnoniale est. Tribute in its origin is the patrimonial right of kings and emperors.

Velle non creditur qul obsequitur inipenio patris vel do- mini. A person is not presumed to act of his own will who obeys the orders of his father or his master.

Vendens eandem rem duobusfalsarius est. A vendor is fraudulent if he sells the same thing to two (separate) buyers.

Venditor nominis teneturpraestare debitum subesse, non vero debitorem locupletem esse. The seller of a debt is bound to warrant that the debt is due, but not that the debtor is a person of means (able to pay).

Veniaefacilitas incentivum est delinquendi. Ease of winning pardon is an incentive to committing crime.

Venire contra factum proprium non valet. To contravene one’s own act is invalid.

Verba accipienda sunt secundum subjectam materiam. Words are to be interpreted according to the subject matter.

Verba accipienda utsortiantur effectum. Words are to be taken so that they may have some effect.

Verba aequivoca ac in dubio sensu posita intelliguntur digniori etpotentiori sensu. Equivocal words and those in a doubtful sense are understood in the more suitable and more effective sense.

Verba aliquid operari debent — debent intelligi ut aliquid operentur. Words ought to have some effect - words ought to be understood so as to have some effect.

Verba aliquid operari debent; verba cum effectu suntaccipienda. Words ought to have some effect; words must be taken so as to have effect.

Verba artis ex arte. Terms of art (should beexplained) from the art.

Verba attendenda, non os loquitur. We must pay attention to the words, not the face (or expression)or the speaker.

Verba chartarumfortius accipiuntur contra proferentem. The words of deeds are taken most strongly against the person offering them.

Verba cum effectu accipienda sunt. Words must be taken so as to have effect.

Verba currentis monetae temp us solutionis designant. The words “current money” refer to the time of payment.

Verba debent intelligi cum effectu, Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Words ought to be understood with effect, so that the thing have force rather than fail. 

Verba debent intelligi utaliquid operentur. Words ought to be so understood that they may have some effect.

Verba dicta de persona intelligi debent de conditione personae. Words spoken of the person are to be understood of the condition of the person.

Verbafortius accipiuntur contra proferentem. Words are interpreted more strongly against the party who puts them forward; words are most readily accepted against the one putting them forward.

Verba generalia generaliter sunt intelligenda. General words are to be understood generally.

Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilitatem rei vel aptitudinem personae. General words are limited to the capability of the subject matter or the aptitude of the person.

Verba generalia restringuntur ad habilltatem rei vel personae. General words are limited to the capability of the subject matter or of the person.

Verba homicidium non excusant. Words (of provocation) do not excuse a homicide.

Verba illata (relata) inesse videntur. Words referred to are considered as if incorporated.

Verba in differenti materiaperprius, non per posterius, intelligenda sunt. Words referring to a different subject are to be understood by what goes before, not by what follows.

Verba intelligenda sunt in casu possibili. Words are to be understood in reference to a possible case.

Verba intentioni, et non e contra, debent inservire. Words should be subject to the intention, not the reverse.

Verba ita sunt intelligenda, Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. Words are to be so understood that the matter may have effect rather than fail.

Verba legis non ex vulgari sensu sed ex legis sensu, neque laxam etprecariam sed certam et legibuspraefinitam interpretationem requirunt. The words of the law require interpretation not from popular meaning but from the legal sense, and not a lax and precarious interpretation but one that is fixed and positive (defined by statute).

Verba mere aequivoca, sipercommunem usum loquendi in intellectu certo sumuntur, talis intellectuspraefrrendus est. When words are purely equivocal, if by common usage of speech they are taken in a certain meaning, such meaning is to be preferred.

Verba nihil operari melius est quam absurde. It is better that words should have no effect than an absurd effect.

Verba non tam intuenda quam causa et natura rei, ut mens contrahentium cx eispotius quam ex verbis appareat. The words (of a contract) are not to be looked to io much as the cause and nature of the matter, so that the intention of the contracting parties may appear from these rather than from the (mere) words.

Verba offendi possunt, immo ab eis recedere licet, ut verba adsanum intellectum reducantur. The words can be faulted — indeed, it is permitted to depart from them, in order that the words may be restored to a sensible meaning.

Verba ordinationis, quando veriflcaripossunt in sua vera significatione, trahi ad extraneum intellectum non debent. When the words of an ordinance can be made true in their true signification, they ought not to be warped to

a foreign meaning.

Verba posteriora propter certitudinem addita, adpriora quae certitudine indigent, sunt referunda. Later words added for the purpose of certainty are to be referred to preceding words in which certainty is wanting.

Verba pro re et subjecta materia accipi debent. Words should be taken most in favor of the thing and the subject matter.

Verba quae aliquid operaripossunt non debent esse superflua. Words that can have some effect ought not to be (treated as) superfluous.

Verba quantumvis generalia ad aptitudinem restringuntur, etiamsi nullam aliam paterentur restrictionem. Words, howsoever general, are confined to fitness (i.e., to harmonize with the subject matter), even if they would bear no other restriction.

Verba relate hoc maxime opera ntur per referentiam ut in eis inesse videntur. Words to which reference is made have, by the reference, this particular effect, that they are considered to be incorporated in those (clauses). • Words to which reference is made in an instrument have the same effect and operation as if they were inserted in the clause referring to them.

Verba relata inesse videntur. Words to which reference is made are considered incorporated.

Verba secundum materiam subjectam Intelligi nemo est qui nescit. There is no one who does not know that words should be understood according to the subject matter.

Verba semper accipienda sunt in mitiori sensu. Words are always to be taken in their milder sense.

Verba strictae sign ifi cationis ad latam extendipossunt, si subsit ratio. Words of a strict signification can be given a wide signification if there is reason for it.

Verba sunt indices animi. Words are indications of the intention.

Verba temereprolata parum curat lex. The law pays little regard to words rashly uttered.

Verbis standum ubi nulla ambiguitas. One must abide by the words where there is no ambiguity.

Verborum obligatio verbis tollitur. An obligation verbally incurred is verbally extinguished.

Verbum imperfecti temporis rem adhuc imperfectain signifi cat. The verb in the imperfect tense indicates a matter as yet incomplete.

Veredictum quasidictum veritatis; ut judicium quasi juris dictum. A verdict is, as it were, the saying of the truth, in the same manner that a judgment is the saying of the law (or right).

Veritus, a quocunque dicitur, a Deo est. Truth, by whomsoever pronounced, is from God.

Veritas demonstrationis toflit errorem nominis. The truth of the description removes the error of the name.

Veritas est justitiae mater. Truth is the mother of justice.

Veritas habenda est in juratore; justitia etjudkium injudice. Truth is the desideratum in a juror; justice and judgment in a judge.

Veritas nihil veretur nisi abscondi. Truth fears nothing but to be hidden.

Veritas nimium altercando amittitur. By too much quarreling the truth is lost.

Veritas nominis tollit erro rem demonstrationis. The truth of the name takes sway the error of the description.

Veritas qune minime defensatur opprimitur, etqui non impro bat appro bat. Truth that is not sufficiently defended is overpowered, and he who does not disapprove approves.

Veritatem qui non liberepronunciat, proditor est yentatis. One who does not speak the truth freely is a traitor to the truth.

Via antiqua via est tuta. The old way is the safe way.

Via tnita est tutissima. The beaten road is the safest.

Via frito, via tuta. The beaten way is the safe way.

Vicarius non habet vicarium. A deputy does not have a deputy.

Vicini viciniora praesumuntur scire. Neighbors are presumed to know things of the immediate vicinity.

Victoria pox, non pactione,parienda est. Peace is to be secured by victory, not by negotiation. .

Victus victori in expensis condemnatus est. The vanquished is to be condemned in costs, to the victor.

Videbis ea saepe committi quae saepe vindicantur. You will see those offenses often committed that are often punished. 

Videtur qui surdus et mutu.c nepoetfaire alienation. A deaf and mute person is considered not to be able to alienate.

Vigilantibus et non dormientibusjura cubveniunt. The laws aid the vigilant, not those who sleep.

Vigilantibus lura sunt scripta. Laws are written for the vigilant.

Vigilantibus non dormientibus subvenit lex. The law supports the waking, not the sleeping.

Villa est expluri bus mansionibus vicinata, et collata ex pluribus vicinis, et sub appellatione villarum continenturburgi et civitates. Vill is a neighborhood of many mansions, a collection of many neighbors. and under the term of ”vills” boroughs and cities are contained. Co. Litt. 115.

Vim vi repellere licet, modo fiat moderamine inculpatae tutelac, non adsumendam vindictam, sedadpropulsandam injuriam. It is lawful to repel force by force; but let it be done with the self-control of blameless defense — not to take revenge, but to repel injury.

Vinco vincentem, ergo multo magis vinco te. If I conquer your conqueror, by so much more do I conquer you.

Violenta praesumptio aliquando est plenaprobatio. Avery powerful presumption is sometimes full proof.

Viperina est expositio quae corrodit viscera textus. That is a viperous exposition that gnaws away the innards of the text.

Vir et uxor censentur in lege una persona. Husband and wife are considered one person in law.

Virginitas vel castitas corrupta restitui non potest. Virginity or chastity, once violated, cannot be restored. 

Vir militass Deo non implicetur secularibus negotiis. A man fighting for God must not be involved in secular business.

Virum bonum nulla spes ad turpia jnvitat. No expectation can allure a good man to evil.

Vis legi bus est inimica. Force is inimical to the laws.

Vita reipublicaepax, et animus libertas, et corp us leges. Peace is the life of the State; liberty the soul; and the laws the body.

Vitium clerici nocere non debet. A clerical error ought not to prejudice.

Vitium est quodfugi debet, ne, si rationem non invenias, mox legem sine ratione esse dames. It is a fault that ought to be avoided, that if you do not discover the reason, you quickly exclaim that the law is without reason.

Vix ulla lexfieri potest quae omnibus cominoda sit, sedsi majonipartiprospiciat, utilis est. Scarcely any law can be made that is advantageous to all; but if it benefits the majority, it is useful.

Vocabula artium explicanda suntsecundum definitiones prudentium. Terms of art are to be explained according to the definitions of those who are experienced in that art.

Volenti non fit injuria. There is no injury to one who consents.

Voluit sed non dixit. The person willed but did not say.

Voluntas donatoris in charta doni sui manifeste expressa observetur. The will of the donor, if clearly expressed in the deed of his gift. should be observed.

Voluntas estjusta sententia de eo quod post mortem suam fieni velit. A will is an exact determination concerning that which each one wishes to be done after his death.

Voluntas etpropositum distinguuntmaleficia. The will and the purpose distinguish crimes.

Vol untasfacit quod in testamento scriptum valeat. The will (of the testator) gives validity to what is written in the will 

Voluntas in delictis non exitus spectatur. In offenses, the will and not the outcome is regarded.

Voluntas regis in curia; non in camera. The will of the king in his court (of law); not in his chamber.

Voluntas reputatur pro facto. The will is to be taken for the deed.

Voluntas testatoris ambulatoria est usque ad mortem. The will of a testator is changeable right up until death. That is, the testator may change the will at anytime. This maxim is sometimes written Voluntas testatoris est ambulatoria usque ad extremum vitae exitum (same sense).

Voluntas testatoris ha bet interpretationem latam et benignam. The will of the testator should receive a broad and liberal interpretation.

Voluntas ultima testatoris est perimplenda secundum veram intentionem suam. The last will of a testator is to be fulfilled according to his true intention.

Vox emissa volat litera scripta manet. The uttered voice flies; the written letter remains.

Voxpopuli vox Del. The voice of the people is the voice of God.

Vulgaris opinlo est duplex: orta inter graves et discretos, quae multum veritatis ha bet, et opitzio orta inter leves et vulgares homines, abs que specie veritatis. Common opinion is double: that proceeding from ghve and discreet men, which has much truth in it, and that proceeding from foolish vulgar men, without any semblance of truth in it.

W

Warrantizare est defendere et acquietare tenentem, qui warrantum vocavit, in selsina sua; et tenens de re warranti excambium habe bit ad valentiam. To warrant is to defend and ensure in peace the tenant, who calls for warranty, in his seisin; and the tenant in warranty will have an exchange in proportion to its value. 

Warrantor potest excipere quod querens non tenet terram de qua petit warrantiam, et quod donumfuit insuffici ens. A warrantor may object that the complainant does not hold the land of which he seeks the warranty, and that the gift was insufficient.

 
 
 
 

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