Additio pro bat minoritatem. An addition proves inferiority. • That is, if it be said that a person has a fee tail, it is less than if the person has the fee.

Ad ea quaefrequentius accidunt jura adaptantur. The laws are adapted to those cases that occur more frequently.

A digniorifieri debet denominatio et resolutio. The denomination and explanation ought to be derived from the more worthy.

Adjuvari quippe nos, non decipi, beneficio oportet. Surely we ought to be helped by a benefit, not be entrapped by it.

Admiralitasjurisdictionem non ha bet super us quae cornniuni lege dirimuntur. A court of Admiralty has nojurisdiction over those things that are determined by common law.

Ad officiumjusticiariorurn spectat unicuique coram eis placitantijustitiam exliibere. It is the duty of justices to administer justice to everyone pleading before them.

Adproximum antecedens fiat relatio, nisi impediatur sententia. A relative is to be referred to the nearest antecedent, unless prevented by the sense.

Ad quaestionesfacti non respondent judices; ad quaestioties legis non respondent juratores. Judges do not answer questions of fact; jurors do not answer questions of law.

Ad quaestiones legis judices, et non juratores, respondent. Judges, and not jurors, answer questions of law.

Ad recte docendum oportetprimum inquirere noniina, quia rerum cognitio a nonuinibus rerum dependet. In order rightly to comprehend a thing, it is necessary first to inquire into the names, for a right knowledge of things depends on their names.

Ad reges enim potestas omnium pertinet; ad singulos, proprietas. Kings have (political) power over all things, while individuals own them.

Ad salutern civium civitatumque incolumnitatem conditae leges sunt. Laws were made for the safety of citizens and for the security of states. (Based on Cicero, De Legibus 2.4.11.)

Ad suum quemque aequum est quaestum esse callidum. it is reasonable that everyone should be clever to his own profit. Plautus, Truculentus 2.416. -

Adversus extraneos vitiosa possessio prodesse solet. Possession though faulty is usually sufficient against outsiders. l Prior possession is a good title of ownership against all who cannot show a better.

Adversus periculum naturalis ratio permittit se defendere. Natural reason allows one to defend himself against danger.

Ad vim majorem vel ad casusfortuitos non tenetur quis, nisi sua culpa intervenerit. No one is held to answer for the effects of superior force or accidents, unless his own fault has contributed.

Aedifi care in tuo proprio solo non licetquodalteri noceat. It is not lawful to build on one’s own land what may be injurious to another.

Aedificatum solo solo cedit. What is built on the land goes with the land.

Aedificia solo cedunt. Buildings go with the land.

Aequiorestdispositio legfs quam hominis. The law’s disposition is more impartial than man’s.

Aequitas agit in personam. Equity acts on the person.

Aequitas casibus medetur. Equity relieves against accidents.

Aequitas curiae cancellariae, quasifihia conscientiae, obtemperat secundurn regulas curiae. The equity of the court of chancery, as if it were the daughter of conscience, conforms to the rules of court.

Aequitas defectus supplet. Equity supplements defects.

Aequitas errori bus medetur. Equity rectifies errors.

Aequitas est aequalitas. Equity is equality.

Aequitas est correctio legis generaliter latae qua parte deficit. Equity is the correction of some part of the law where by reason of its generality it is defective.

Aequitas estperfecta quaedarn ratio quaejus scriptum interpretatur et ernendat; nulla scriptura comprehensa, sed sola ratione consistens. Equity is a sort of perfect reason that interprets and amends written law; comprehçnded in no written text, but consisting of reason alone.

Aequitas est quasi equalitas. Equity is as it were equality.

Aequitas est virtus voluntatis, correctrix ejus in quo lex propter universalitatem deficit. Equity is a virtue of the will, the corrector of that wherein the law, by reason of its universality, is defièient.

Aequitas cx lege generaliter lata aliquid excipit. Equity makes exception to a law framed generally.

Aequitas ignorantiae opitulatur, oscitantiae non item. Equity assists ignorance but not complacency (or carelessness).

Aequitas in eurn qui vult sutnmo jure agere summumjus intendit. Equity directs the rigor of the law against him who wishes to act according to the rigor of the law.

Aequitas in paribus causis paria jura desiderat. Equity in like cases requires like laws.

Aequitasjurisdictiones non confundit. Equity a)es not confuse jurisdictions.

Aequitas naturam rei non mutat. Equity does not change the nature of a thing.

Aequitas neminern juvat cum injuria alterius. Equity aids no man to the injury of another.

Aequitas non facit jus, sed jun auxiliatur. Equity does not create a right, but aids the right.

Aequitas non medetur defectu eorum quaejurepositivo requisita sunt. Equity does not make up for a deficiency of those things that are required by positive law.

Aequitas non smut eum qui jus verum tenuit extremumjus persequi. Equity does not allow one who has obtained a true right to prosecute it to the extremity.

Aequitas non supplet ea quae in manu orantis essepossunt. Equity does not provide for those things that may be in the hand of an applicant.

Aequitas non vaga atque incerta, sed terniinos ha bet atque limites praefinitos. Equity is not vague and uncertain, but has boundaries and prescribed limits.

Aequitas nun quam contravenit leges. Equity never contravenes the laws.

Aequitas nun quam liti ancillatur ubi remedium po test dare. Equity never fosters a quarrel, where she can give a remedy.

Aequitas rei oppignoratae redemptionibusfavet. Equity favors the redemption of a thing given in pawn.

Aequitas rem ipsam intuetur deforma et circumstantiis minus anxia, Equity focuses on the thing itself and is less concerned with form and circumstance.

Aequitas sequitur legem. Equity follows the law.

Aequitas supervacua odit. Equity abhors superfluous things.

Aequitas uxoribus, liberis, creditoribus maximefavet. Equity most favors wives, children, and creditors.

Aequitas vult omnibus modis, ad veritatem perven ire. Equity wishes by every possible means to attain the truth.

Aequitas vultspoliatos, vel deceptos, vel lapsos ante omnia rest stui. Equity wishes the plundered, the deceived, and the ruined, above all, to have restitution.

Aequum et bonum est lex legum. What is equitable and good is the law of laws.

Aestimatio praeteriti delicti expostremofacto nun quàm crescit. The assessment of a past offense never increases from a subsequent fact.

Afacto ad jus non datur consequentia. The inference from fact to law is not allowed. • That is, a fact does not necessarily constitute a right.

Affectio tua nomen imponit open tuo. Your motive gives a name to your act.

Affectus punitur licet non sequatur effectus. The intention is punished even if the object is not achieved.

Affinis dicitur, curn duae cognationes, interse divisae, per nuptias copulantur, et altera ad alterius fines accidit. Persons are said to be bound by affinity when two families, divided from one another, are united by marriage, and each approaches the borders of the other.

Affinis mei affinis non est mihi affinis. A person connected by marriage to someone connected by marriage to me is no connection of mine.

Affirmanti, non neganti, incumbit pro batio. The proof is incumbent on the one who affirms, not on the one who denies.

Affirmantis est probare. The person who affirms must prove.

Affirm ativum negativum implicat. An affirmative implies a negative.

Age ntes et consentientes pan poenaplectentur. Acting and consenting parties will be liable to the same punishment.

Ajure suo cadunt. They fall from their right. • That is, they lose their right.

Ajustitia (quasi a quodamfonte) omniajura emanant. From justice, as from a fountain, all rights flow.

Aleator quanto in arte est melior, tanto est nequior. The more skillful the gambler is in his art, the more wicked he is. Publilius Syrus.

Aliena negotia exacto officio geruntur. The business of another is conducted with scrupulous attention.

Alienatio licetprohibeatur, consensu tamen omnium in quorum favo rem pro hi bita estpotestfieri; et quilibetpotest renunciare jun pro se introducto. Even if alienation is prohibited, it may yet take place by the consent of all in whose favor it is prohibited; it is in the power of anyone to renounce a right introduced for his own benefit.

Alienatio rei praefertur furl accrescendi. Alienation of property is favored over the right to accumulate.

A himpossible nul n’est tenu. No one is bound to do what is impossible.

Aliquid conceditur ne injuria remaneat impunita quad alias non concederetur. Something is conceded that otherwise would not be conceded, so that a wrong not remain unpunished.

Aliquis non debet esse judex in propria causa, quia non potest essejudex etpars. A person ought not to be judge in his own cause, because he cannot act both as judge and party.

Aliud est celare, aliud tacere. To conceal is one thing, to be silent another.

Aliud est distinctio, aliud separatio. Distinction is one thing, separation another.

Aliud estpossidere, aliud esse inpossessione. It is one thing to possess, another to be in possession.

Aliud est vendere, aliud vendenti consentire. To sell is one thing, to give consent to the seller another.

Allegans con traria non est audiendus. A person making contradictory allegations is not to be heard.

Allegans suam turpitudinem non est audiendus. A person alleging his own wrong is not to be heard.

Allegari non debuit quod pro baturn non relevat. What is not relevant if proved ought not to have been alleged.

Allegatio contrafactum non est adinittenda. An allegation contrary to the deed (or fact) is not admissible.

Alterius circumventio alii non praebet actionem. A deception practiced on one person does not give a cause of action to another.

Alternativa pet itlo non est audienda. An alternative petition is not to be heard.

Ambigua responsio contra proferentem est accipienda. An ambiguous answer is to be taken against the party who offers it.

Ambiguis casibus semperpraesumitur pro rege. In doubtful cases the presumption is always in favor of the king.

Ambiguitas contra stipulatorem est. A dubious expression is construed against the party using it.

Ambiguitas verborum latens verificatione suppletur; nam quad exfacto oritur ambiguum verificationefacti tollitur. A latent ambiguity in wording is resolved by evidence; for whatever ambiguity arises from an extrinsic fact is resolved by extrinsic evidence.

Ambiguitas verbo rum patens nulla verificatione exciuditur. A patent ambiguity is not removed by extrinsic evidence (or is never helped by averment).

Ambiguurn pactum contra venditorem interpretandum eat. An ambiguous agreement is construed against the seller.

Ambiguum placitum interpretari debet contra proferentern. An ambiguous plea ought to be interpreted against the party pleading it.

Ambulatoria est voluntas defuncti usque ad vitae supremum exitum. The will of a decedent is ambulatory (that is, can be altered) until the last moment of life.

Ancupia verborum sunt judice indigna. Quibbling over words is unworthy of a judge.

Angliaejura in omni casu liberrati dantfavo rem. The laws of England are favorable in every case to liberty.

Animus ad se omne jus ducit. The mind brings every right unto itself. • Often explained: It is to the intention that all law applies.

Anitnus hominis est anima scripti. The intention of the person is the soul of the instrument.

Anniculus trecentesimo sexagesimo-quinto die dicitur, incipiente plane non exacto die, quia annum civiliter non ad momenta temporum sed ad dies numeramur. We call a child a year old on the 365th day, when the day is clearly begun but not ended, because we calculate the clvii year not by moments, but by days.

Annua nec debitum judex non separat ipse. Even the judge apportions neither annuities nor debt.

Annus est mora motus quo suum planeta pervolvat circulum. A year is the duration of the motion by which a planet revolves through its orbit.

Annus inceptus pro completo habetur. A year begun is held as completed. • Said to be of very limited application.

A non posse ad non esse sequitur argumentum necessarie negative, licet non affirmative. From impossibility to nonexistence the inference follows necessarily in the negative, though not in the affirmative.

Apices juris non sunt jura. Legal niceties are not law.

A piratis aut latronibus capti liberi permanent. Those captured by pirates or robbers remain free.

A piratis et latronibus capta dominium non mutant. Things captured by pirates or robbers do not change their ownership.

Appellatione fundi omne aedificium et omnis ager continetur. The word land comprehends every building and every field.

Applicatio est vita regulae. The application is the life of a rule.

Aqua cedit solo. The water goes with the ground. • A grant of the land includes the water on it.

Aqua currit et debet currere Ut currere solebat. Water runs and ought to run as it has been used to run.

Arbiter nihil extra compromissumfacerepotest. The arbitrator can do nothing beyond the agreement to arbitrate.

Arbitramentum aequum tribuit cuiquesaum. Ajust arbitration renders to each his own.

Arbitrium est judicium. An award is a judgment.

Arbitrium estjudicium boni yin, secundum aequum et bonum. An award is the judgment of a good man according to equity and virtue.

Arbor dum crescit; lignum dum crescere nequit. It is a tree while it is growing; wood when it cannot grow.

A rescriptis valet argumentum. An argument from rescripts (i.e., original writs in the register) is valid.

Argumenta ignota et obscura ad lucem rationisproferunt et redduntsplendida. Argument bring things hidden and obscure to the light of reason and render them clear.

Argumentum ab auctoritate estfortissimum in lege. An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in law.

Argumentum ab impossibiliplurimum valet in lege. An argument deduced from an impossibility has the greatest validity in law.

Argumentum ab inconvenientiplurimum valet in lege. An argument drawn from what is unsuitable (or improper) has the greatest validity in law. Co. Litt. 66a.

Argumentum a communiter accidentibus Injurefrequens est. An argument from things commonly happening is frequent in law

Argumentum a divisione estfortissimum injure. An argument based on a subdivision of the subject is most powerful in law.

Argumentum a majori ad minus negative non valet; valet e converso. An argument from the greater to the lesser is of no force in the negative; conversely (in the affirmative) it is valid.

Argumentum a simili valet in lege. An argument by analogy (from a similar case) has force in law.

Arma in armatos sumerejura sinunt. The laws permit taking up arms against the armed.

Assign atus Ut itur jure auctoris. An assignee is clothed with the rights of the principal.

A summo remedio ad inferiorem actionem non habetur regressus neque auxilium. From the highest remedy to an inferior action there is no recourse or assistance.

Auctonitatesphilosophorum, medicorum etpoetarum sunt in causis allegandae et tenendae. The authoritative opinions of philosophers, physicians, and poets are to be adduced and regarded in causes.

Aucupia verborum sunt judice indigna. Quibbling over words is unworthy of a judge.

Audacesfortuna iuvat. Fortune succors the bold.

Audi alterampartem. Hear the other side. • No one should be condemned unheard.

Audiatur et altera pars. May the other side be heard.

Auxilium principali sequitur. The aid follows the principal.

A verbis legis non est recedendum. From the words of the law there is to be no departure.


Baratriam committit qui propter pecuniam justitiam baractat. A person is guilty of barratry who sells justice for money.

Bello pacta cedunt reipublicae. In war contracts give way to the state.

Benedicta est expositio quando res redimitur a destructione. Blessed is the exposition when a thing is saved from destruction.

Beneficium invito non datur. A privilege or benefit is not granted against a person’s will.

Beneficium non datum nisipropter officium. A remuneration is not given, unless on account of a duty performed.

Beneficium non datur nisi offi cii causa. A benefice is not granted except on account or hi consideration of duty.

Beneficium pnincipis debet esse mansurum. The benefaction of a prince ought to be lasting.

Benignefaciendae sunt interp ret ationes chartarum, ut res magis valeat quam pereat; et quaelibet concessiofortissime contra donatorem interpretanda est. Deeds should be subject to liberal interpretation, so that the matter may take effect rather than fail; and every grant is to be taken most strongly against the grantor.

Benignefaciendae sunt interpretationes propter simplicitatem laicorum, Ut res magis valeat quam pereat; et verba intentioni, non e contra, debent inservire. Constructions (of written instruments) are to be made liberally, for the simplicity of laymen, in order that the matter may have effect rather than fail (or become void); and words must be subject to the intention, not the intention to the words.

Benignior sententia in verbis generalibus seu dubiis est preferenda. The more favorable construction is to be preferred in general or doubtful expressions.

Benignius leges iñterpretandae sunt quo voluntas earum conservetur. Laws are to be more liberally interpreted so that their intent may be preserved.

Bigamus seu trigamus, etc., est qul diversis temporibus et successive duas seu tres uxores habuit. A bigamus or trigamus, etc., is one who has had two or more wives in succession, each at a different time. 3 Co. Inst. 88.

Bis dat qui cito dat. He pays twice who pays promptly.

Bis idem exigi bonafides non patitur, et in satisfactionibus non permittitur ampliusfieri quam semelfactum est. Good faith does not allow the same thing to be exacted twice; and in satisfying claims, it is not permitted that more should be done after satisfaction has once been’, rendered.w

Bonaefidei non congruit de apicibus juris disputare. It is incompatible with good faith to insist on the extreme subtleties of the law.

Bonaefidei possessor in id tantum quod ad se pervenerit tenetur. A possessor in good faith is liable only for that which he himself has obtained (literally, what has come to him). 2 Co. Inst. 285.

Bonafidepossessorfacitfruetus consumptos suos. A possessor in good faith is entitled to the fruits (or produce) that he consumes.

Bonafides exigit ut quod convenitfiat. Good faith demands that what is agreed on shall be done.

Bonafides non patiturut bis idem exigatur. Good faith does not allow payment to be exacted twice for the same thing.

Bona non intefligentur nisi deducto aere alieno. Assets will not be recognized unless debts have been deducted.

Bonijudicis est ampliarejurisdictionem (orjustitiam). It is the role of a good judge to enlarge (or use liberally) his jurisdiction (or remedial authority).

Bonijudicis est ampliare justitiam. It is the role of a good judge to enlarge or extend justice.

Bonijudicis est causas litium dirimere. It is the role of a good judge to remove causes of litigation.

Bonijudicis est judicium sine dilatione mandare executioni. It is the role of a good judge to render judgment for execution without delay.

Bonijudicis est lites dirimere, ne us ex lite oriatur. It is the role of a good judge to dispose of lawsuits so that one suit should not grow from another. 5 Coke 31a.

Bonum defendentis ex integra causa; malum ex quolibet defectu. A good outcome for the defendant comes from a sound case; a bad outcome from some defect.

Bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. A thing good from necessity is not good beyond the limits of the necessity.

Bonus judex secundum aequum et bonumjudicat, Ct aequitatem stricto jun praefert. A good judge decides according to fairness and the good and prefers equity to strict law.

Breve ita dicitur, quia rem de qua agitur, et intentionem petentis, paucis verbis breviter enarrat. A writ is called a “breve” because it briefly states, in few words, the matter in dispute, and the object of the party seeking relief. Breve judiciale debet sequi suum originale, et accessorium suum principale. A judicial writ ought to follow its original, and an accessory its principal.

Breve judiciale non cadit pro defectufonxnae. A judicial writ does not fail for a defect of form.

Brevia, tam oniginalia quam judicialia, patiuntur anglica nomina. Writs, original as well as judicial, bear English names.


Cancellarii angliae dignitas est, ut secundus a rege in regno habetur. The dignity of the chancellor of England is (such) that he is considered second in the realm from the sovereign.

Carcer ad homines custodiendos, non ad puniendos, dan debet. Imprisonment should be imposed for keeping people in confinement, not for punishing them (further). Co. Litt. 260a.

Carcer non supplicii causa sed custodiac constitutus. A prison is established not for the sake of punishment, but for detention under guard.

Caret periculo qui etiam cum est tutus cavet. He is most free from danger who, even when safe, is on his guard.

Casusfortuitus non est sperandus, et nemo tenetur dlvinare. A chance event is not to be expected, and no one is bound to foresee it.

Casusfortuitus non estsupponendus. A chance event is not to be presumed.

Casus omissus et oblivioni datus dispositioni communis juris relinquitur. A case omitted and forgotten (not provided for in statute) is left to the disposal of the common law.

Casus omissus pro omisso habendus est. A case omitted is to be held as (intentionally) omitted.

Catallajustepossessa amitti non possunt. Chattels rightly possessed cannot be lost.

Catalla rep utantur inter minima in lege. Chattels are considered in law among things of least consequence.

Causa causac est causa causati. The cause of a cause is the cause of the effect.

Causa causantis causa est causati. The cause of the thing causing is the cause of the effect.

Causa ecclesiaepublicis aequiparatur; etsumma est ratio qune pro religionefacit. The cause of the church is equal to public causes; aid paramount is the reason that acts in favor of religion.

Causae dotis, vitae, libertatis,fisci sunt interfavorabilia in lege. Causes of dower, life, liberty, revenue are among the things favored in law.

Causae ecclesiaepublicis causis aequiparantur. The causes of the church are equal to public causes.

Causa et origo est matenia negotii. The cause and origin of a matter are the substance of it. • “The law regards the original act”: as in the case of a man who attempts suicide in madness, but dies after regaining sanity; such is not suicide. 1 Coke 99.

Causa patet. The reason is obvious.

Causaproxima non remota spectatur. The immediate and not the remote cause is considered.

Causa vaga et incerta non est causa rationabilis. A vague and uncertain cause is not a reasonable cause.

Caveat emptor. Let the buyer beware.

Caveat emptor qui ignorare non debuit quod jus alienum emit. Let the buyer beware; for he ought not act in ignorance when he buys what another has right to.

Caveat venditor. Let the seller beware.

Caveat viator. Let the traveler beware.

Cavendum est afragmentis. Beware of fragments.

Certa debet esse lntentio et narratio Ct certumfundamenturn et certa res quae deducitur in judicium. The design and narration ought to be certain, the foundation certain, and the matter certain that is brought into court to be tried.

Certum est quod certum reddipotest. That is certain which can be rendered certain.

Cessante causa, cessat effectus. The cause ceasing, the effect ceases.

Cessante ratione legis cessat et ipsa lex. When the reason of the law ceases, the law itself also ceases.

Cessante statu primitivo, cessat derivativus. When the original estate comes to an end, the derivative estate is also at an end.

Cessa regnare, si non vis judicare. Cease to reign if you wish not to adjudicate.

C’est le crime qui fait Ia home, et non pas vechafaud. It is the crime that causes the shame, and not the scaffold. Cestuy que dolt inheriter al pete doit inheriter alfils. The person who should have inherited from the father should also inherit from the son.

Chacea est ad cornmunern legem. A chase (or hunting ground) exists by common law.

Charta de non ente non valet. A deed of a thing not in being is not valid,

Charta non est nisi vestimentum donatlonis. A deed is nothing else than the vestment (or clothing) of a gift.

Chartarurn super fidem, mortuis testibus, ad patriam de necessitudine recurrendum est. (A dispute) regarding the veracity of deeds, with the witnesses dead, must necessarily be referred to the country (or jury). Chirographum apud debitorem repertum praesumiturso.. lutum. When the evidence (or voucher) is found in the debtor’s possession, the debt is presumed to be paid.

Chirographum non extans praesumitur solutum. When the evidence of a debt is not in existence, it is presumed to have been discharged.

Circuitus est evitandus. Circuity (roundabout proceeding) is to be avoided.

Circuitus est evitandus; et bonijudicis est lites dirimere, ne Its ex lite oriatur. Circuity is to be avoided; and it is the role of a good judge to determine (or dispose of) litigations so that one lawsuit may not arise from another.

Citatio est dejuri naturali. A summons is by natural right.

Cit ationes non concedanturpriusquam exprimatur super qua refieri debet citatio. Citations should not be granted before it is stated about what matter the citation is to be made.

Civitas ea autern in libertate estposita quae suis stat yinbus, non ex alieno arbitriopendet. That state enjoys freedom which relies upon its own strength and does not depend upon the authority of another.

Clam delinquens magis punitur quam palam. A person who does wrong secretly is punished more severely than one who acts openly. 8 Coke 127.

Clam factum id videtur esse, quod quisque, quum controversiarn ha beret, habiturumve seputaret, fecit. That is considered done secretly which someone did when he had a legal dispute or thought he would have one.

Clausulae inconsuetae semper inducunt suspicionem. Unusual clauses always arouse suspicion.

Clausula generalis de residuo non ea complectitur quae non ejusdem sint genenis cum us quae specialim dicta fuerant. A general clause of remainder does not embrace those things that are not of the same kind as those that had been specially mentioned.

Clausula generalis non refertur ad expressa. A general clause does not refer to things expressly mentioned.

Clausula quae abrogationem exciudit ab initio non valet. A clause that precludes abrogation is invalid from the beginning.

Clausula vel dispositlo inutilisperpraesumptionem remotam vel causam expostfacto non fulcitur. A useless clause or disposition is not supported by a remote presumption or by a cause arising afterwards. • A useless clause or disposition is one that expresses no more than the law by intendment would have supplied; it is not supported by a remote presumption or foreign intendment of some purpose, in regard whereof it might be material, or by a cause arising afterwards that may induce an operation of those idle words.

Clerici non ponentur in officiis. The clergy should not be placed in temporal offices.

Cogitationispoenam nemo meretur. No one deserves punishment for his thoughts.

Cogitationispoenam nemopatitur. No one is punished for his thoughts.

Cognomen majorum est ex sanguine tractum, hoc intninsecum est; agnomen extrinsecurn ab eventu. The cognomen is derived from the blood of ancestors and is intrinsic; an agnomen (or honorary title) arises from an event, and is extrinsic.

Cohaeredes sunt quasi unum corpus aut una persona censentur, propter unit atern juris quod habent. Coheirs are deemed as one body, or one person, on account of the unity of right that they possess.

Cohaeredes una persona censentur,propter unitatemjurls quod ha bent. Coheirs are deemed as one person, on account of the unity of right that they possess.

Coheredes sunt quasi unum corpus, propter unitatem juris quod habent. Coheirs are treated as one person because of the unity of right that they have.

Collegium est societas plunium corporum simul habitantium. A college is a society of several people dwelling together.

Collegium seu Corp us corporatum nlsi regiis constitutionibus non potest existere. A college or incorporated body can not exist except by charter of the sovereign.

Corn menda estfacultas recipiendi et retinendi beneficiurn contra jus positivum a suprema potestate. A cornmendam is the power of receiving and retaining a benefice contrary to positive law, by supreme authority.

Cornmerciumjure gentium commune esse debet et non in monopolium etpnivatum paucorum quaestum conve.rtendum. Commerce, by the law of nations, ought to be common and not converted into a monopoly and the private gain of a few.

Commoduin ex injuria sua non habere debet. (The wrongdoer) should not derive any benefit from his own wrong. Comm unis error facit jus. A common error (one often repeated) makes law.

Communis error non facit jus. A common error does not make law. • This maxim expresses a view directly contradictory to the view of the immediately preceding maxim. Both are attested in legal literature.

Communiter unum officiurn est excusatio alterius. The performance of one duty is commonly the excuse for the nonperformance of another.

Compendia sunt dispendia. Abridgments are hindrancs. Shortcuts or time-saving measures are often a loss. • Coke continues, Melius estpeterefontes. Co. Litt. 305b.

Corn promisarii sunt judices. Arbitrators are judges.

Compromissurn ad similitudinem judiciorum redigitur. A compromise is brought into affinity with judgments.

Conatus quid sit non definitur injure. What an attempt is, is not defined in law

Concessio per regemfieri debet de certitudine. A grant by the king ought to be made of a certainty. • Coke explains, “If the king grants to me that I shall not be sheriff, without showing of what county, it is void for uncertainty.” 9 Coke 46b.

Concessio versus concedentern latam interpretationern habere debet. A grant ought to have a liberal interpretation against the grantor.

Concordare leges legi bus est optimus interpretandi modus. To make laws agree with laws is the best mode of interpreting them.

Concordia parvae res crescunt et opulentia lites. Small means increase by concord and litigations by opulence.

Condiciio reifurtivae, quia rei habetpersecutionem, hueredem quoquefuris obligat. Because the condictio for a stolen thing has the aim of recovering the asset, it also binds the thief’s heir. Dig.

Conditio ad liberum tenemen turn auferendum non nisi ex facto placitari debet. An argument for taking away a free tenure ought not be pleaded, except from the deed.

Conditio beneficialis, quae statum construit, benigne secundum verborum intentionetn est interpretanda; odiosa autem quae statum destruitstricte, secundum verbo rum proprietatem, accipienda. A beneficial condition that creates an estate ought to be construed favorably, according to the intention of the words; but a condition that1destroys an estate is odious and ought to be construed according to the strict sense of the words.

Conditlo dicitur cum quid in casum incertum quipotest tendere ad esse Gut non esse confertur. It is called a condition when something is given for an uncertain event that may or may not come into existence.

Conditio exparte extincta ex toto extinguitur. An agreement extinguished in part is wholly extinguished.

Conditio illicita habetur pro non adjecta. An unlawful condition is considered unconnected.

Conditio liberurn tenernentum cassans non per nuda verba sine charta valebit. A condition making void a free tenement will be ofno value by bare words without a deed.

Conditio neminem juvabit nisi quiparsfuerit autprivus. An agreement shall benefit no one unless he is party or privy to it.

Conditionem testiurn tunc inspicere debemus cum Signorent, non mortis tempore. We should consider the condition of witnesses when they sign, not at the time of death. Dig. 28.1.22.

Conditionespraecedentes ad normam legis severe exigendae; aliter de subsequentibus ubi aequitati licet damnum rei infectaepensari. Conditions precedent must be rigorously exacted according to the rules of law; but it is otherwise concerning conditions subsequent, where equity is allowed to make up for the loss incurred by the failure.

Conditiones quaelibet odiosae; maxime autern contra matrirnoniurn et commercium. Any conditions are odious, but especially those against matrimony and commerce.

Conditiopraecedens adimpleri debetprius quam sequatur effectus. A condition precedent ought to be fulfilled before the effect can follow.

Confessiofacta injudicio omniprobatione major est. A confession made in court is of greater effect than any proof.

Confrssus in judicio pro judicato habetur et quodarnmodo sua sententia damnatur. A person who has confessed his guilt when arraigned is considered to have been tried and is, as it were, condemned by his own sentence.

Confirmare est id quodprius infirmurnfritsimulfirmare. To confirm is to make firm at once what before was not firm.

Confirmare nemopotest pri usquam jus ei accident. No one can confirm before the right accrues to him.

Confirmatio est nulla ubi donum praecedens est invalidum. A confirmation is null where the preceding gift is invalid.

Confirmatio est possessionis june deft ctivo per eos quorum jus est ratibabitio. The confirmation of a possession defective in law is a ratification by means of those whose right it is.

Confirmatio omnes supplet defectus, licet id quad actum est ab initio non valuit. Confirmation supplies all defects, even if that which has been done was not valid at the beginning.

Confirmat usum qui tollit abusum. One confirms a use who removes an abuse.

Conjunctio maniti etfeminae est dejure naturae. The union of husband and wife derives from the law of nature. Conscientia dicitur a con etscio, quasi scire curn Deo. Conscience is so called from con and scio, to know, as it were, with God.

Conscientia legalis e legefundatur. Legal conscience is founded upon the law.

Conscientia legi nun quam contravenit. Conscience never contravenes the law.

ConscientIa legis ex legependet. The conscience of the law depends on the law.

Consecratio estperiodus electionis; electio estpraeambula consecrationis. Consecration is the termination of election; election is the preamble of consecration.

Consensus est voluntasplurium ad quos respertinet, simul juncta. Consent is the conjoint will of several people to whom the thing belongs.

Consensus facit legem. Consent makes law. • A contract constitutes law between the parties agreeing to be bound by it.

Consensus, non concubitus, facitmatrimonium. Consent, not coition (or sharing a bed), constitutes marriage.

Consensus, non concubitus, facit nuptias vel matrimonium, et consentire non possunt ante annos nubiles. Consent, and not coition (or sharing a bed), constitutes nuptials or marriage, and persons cannot consent before marriageable years.

Consensus tout erro rem. Consent removes an error. A person cannot object to something he has consented to.

Consensus voluntas multorum ad quos res pertinet simul juncta. Consent is the united will of several interested in one subject matter.

Consentientes et agentes pan poenaplectentur. Those consenting and those perpetrating will recive the same punishment.

Consen tire estfacere. To consent to a thing is to act.

Consentire matnirnonio non possunt infra (ante) annos nubiles. Persons cannot consent to marriage before marriageable years.

Consequentiae non est consequentia. The consequence of a consequence does not exist.

Consilia inultorum quaeruntur (requiruntur) in magnis. - The advice of many is sought in great affairs.

Consilii non fraudulenti nulla obligatio est; caeterum si dolus et calljditas intercessit, de dolo actio competit. No one is liable for honest advice; but if fraud and cunfling have occurred, an action for fraud is admissible. Dig. 50.17.47.

Consortio malorum me quoque malumfacit. The company of wicked men makes me also wicked.

Constitutiones tempore posteriores potlores sunt his quae : psaspraecesserunt. Later laws prevail over those that preceded them.

Constituturn esse earn domum unicuiquc nostrum debere existimani, ubi quisque sedes et tabulas ha beret, suarumque rerum constitutionenifecisset. It is a settled principle that what ought to be considered the home of each of us is where he has his dwelling, keeps his records, and has established his business.

Constructio ad principia refertur rei. Construction refers (or applies) to the principles of a thing.

Constructio legis non facit injuriam. The construction of the law does no injury.

Consuetudo contra rationem introductapotius usurp atio quam consuetudo appellari debet. A custom introduced against reason ought rather to be called a usurpation than a custom.

Consuetudo debet esse certa. Custbm ought to be fixed...

Consuetudo debet esse certa, narn incerta pro nulla (nullius) habetur. Custom ought to be fixed, for if variable it is held as null (or of no account).

Consuetudo debet esse certa, nam incerta pro nullis habentur. A custom should be certain, for uncertain things are held as nothing. • This maxim is sometimes written Consuctudo debet esse certa, nam incerta pro nulla (nullius) habetur (meaning “custom should be certain, for if uncertain it is held as nothing”).

Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom is another law.

Consuetudo est optimus interpres legurn. Custom is the best expounder of the law.

Consuetudo et comm unis assuetudo vincit legern non scniptam, Si sit specialis; et interpretatur legem scniptam, si lex sit generalis. Cutom and common usage overcome the unwritten law if it s special; and interpret the written law if the law is general.

Consuetudo ex certa cause rationabili usitata privet cornmunem legem. Custclm observed by reason of a certain and reasonable cause upersedes the cqmmon law.

Consuetudo, licet sit magnae aucto, titatis, nun quam tamen praejudicat nanifes tee veritati. A custom, even if it is of great authoritW, is never prejudicial to plain truth.

Consuetudo loci obserl’anda est. The custom of the place is to be observed.

Consuetudo manerii etoci observanda est. The custom of a manor and place is t be observed.

Consuetudo neque injuia oriri neque tofli protest. A custom can neither arise nor be abolished by a wrong.

Consisetudo non habituir (trahitur) in consequentiarn. Custom is not held as (or drawn into) a precedent.

Consuetudopraescnipta et legitima vincit legem. A prescriptive and lawful custom overrides the law.

Consuetudo regni Angliae est lex Angliae. The custom of the kingdom of England is the law of England.

Consuetudo semel repro beta non potest amplius induci. A custom once disallowed cannot again be introduced.

Consuetudo tollit communem legem. Custom takes away the common law.

Consuetudo vincit communem legem. Custom overrules common law.

Consuetudo volentes ducit, lex nolentes tra hit. Custom leads the willing; law drags the unwilling.

Contemporanea consuetudo optimus interpres. Contempory custom is the best interpreter.

Contemporanea expositio est optima etfortissima in lege. A contemporaneous exposition is the best and most powerful in the law. • A statute is best explained by following the construction put on it by judges who lived at the time it was made, or soon after.

Contestatio litis eget terminos contradictarios. An issue requires terms of contradiction. • That is, there can be no issue without an affirmative on one side and a negative on the other).

Contractus ad mentempartium verbis notatam intelligendus. A contract is to be understood according to the intention of the parties as expressed in words.

Con tractus est quasi actus contra actum. A contract is, as it were, act against act.

Contra ctus cx turpi cause vel contra bonos mores nullus est. A contract founded on a wrongful consideration or against good morals is null.

Contractus infantis invalidus, si ifl damnum sui spectet. The contract of a minor is invalid if it has his or her loss in view.

Contractus legem cx conventione accipiunt. Contracts receive legal validity from the agreement of the parties.

Contra fictionem non admittiturprobatio; quid enim efficeret pro batio veritatis, ubiflctio adversus veritatem fingit? Namfictio nihil aliud est, quarn legis adversus yentitatem in repossibili exjusta cause dispositio. Proof is not admitted against fiction, for what could the evidence of truth effect, where fiction supposes falsehood? For fiction is no other than an arrangement of the law against truth, in a possible matter, arising from a just cause. 3 BI. Com. 43.

Contra juris civilis regulaspacta conventa rota non habentur. Agreements made contrary to the rules of civil law are not to be construed as valid.

Contra legemfacit qui idfacit quod lex prohibit; infraudem vero qui, salvis verbis legis, sententiam ejus circumvenit. A person acts contrary to the law who does what the law prohibits; a person acts in fraud of the law who, without violating the wording, circumvents the intention. Dig. 1.3.29.

Contra negantem principia non est disputandum. There is no disputing against one who denies first principles.

Contra non valentem agere nulla curritpraescriptio. No prescription runs against a person unable to act (or bripg an action).

Contrariorum contra na est ratio. The reason of contrary things is contrary.

Contra spoliatorem omniapraesumuntur. All-things are to be presumed against the plunderer.

Contra venitatern lex nun quam aliquid permittit. The law never allows anything contrary to truth.

Contraxisse unusquisque in eo loco intefligitur, in quo ut solveretse obligavit. Everyone is understood to have contracted in that place where he has bound himself to pay.

Contrectatlo rei alienae animofurandi estfurtum. Touching or taking another’s property with an intention of stealing is theft.

Conventlo omnis intelligitur clausula rebus sic stantibus. Every contract is to be understood as being based on t?ie assumption of things remaining as they were (that is, at the time of its conclusion).

Conventio pnivatorum non potest publicojuri derogare. An agreement of private persons cannot derogate from public right. • That is, it cannot prevent the application of general rules of law, or render valid any contravention of law.

Conventlo vincit legem. The express agreement of the parties overrides the law.

Convicia si irascaris tua divulgas; spreta exolescunt. If you are moved to anger by insults, you spread them abroad; if despised, they die out.

Copulatio verborum indicat acceptationem in eodem sensu. Coupling words together shows that.they ought to be understood in the same sense.

Car poralis injunia non recipit aestimationem defuturo. A personal injury does not receive satisfaction from proceedings yet in the future.

Corpus corporaturn ex uno potest consistere. One person may constitute a corporation.

Corpus corporatum neque in lite sisti; neque utlagani, neque bonaforisfacere, neque attinctumpati, attornaturn facere; neque excominunicani potest. A corporation can neither be brought into court or outlawed, nor can it forfeit goods, suffer attainder, take power of attorney nor is it liable to excommunication.

Corpus corporaturn non ha bet haeredes neque executores neque mon potest. A corportation has neither heirs nor executors, nor can it die.

Corpus hurnanum non recipit aestimationem. The person of a human being can have no price put on it.

Corruptio optimi pessima. Corruption of the best is worst.

Counsellor nest destre oye queparle enver les presidents. A counselor ought not to be heard who speaks against precedent.

Creditor qui permittit rem venirepignus dimittit. The creditor who allows property to be sold gives up the pledge.

Creditorum appellatione non hi tantum accipiuntur qui pecuniam crediderunt, sed omnes quibus ex qualibet causa debetur. Under the name of creditors are included not only those who have lent money, but also all to whom a debt is owed from any cause.

Crescente malitia crescere debet etpoena. With increase of malice, punishment ought also to increase.

Cnimen expostfacto non diluitur. A crime cannot be undone (or excused) by a subsequent act.

Crimenfalsi dicitur, cum quis illicitus, cui non fuerit ad hoea data az(ctoritas, de sigillo regis rapto -vel invento brevia cartasve cons ignaverit. It is called “crimen falsi” when anyone to whom power has not been given for such purposes has illicitly signed writs or grants with the king’s. seal, either stolen or found.

Crimen laesae majestatis omnia alia crimina excedit quoadpoenam. The crime of treason exceeds all other crimes in its punishment.

Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat. Crime taints everything that springs from it.

Crimen trahit personam. The crime brings with it the person. . That is, the commission of a crime gives the courts of the place where it is committed jurisdiction over the person of the offender.

Crimen vet poena paterna nuIlan maculamfihio infligerepotest. The crime or punishment of a father inflicts no stain upon his son.

Crimina monte extinguuntur. Crimes are extinguished by death.

Cruciatus legi bus invisi. Tortures are odious to the laws.

Cuicunque aliquis quid concedit concedere videtur et Id sine quo res ipsa esse non potuit. One who grants something to another grants also that without which the thing granted could not exist. • This maxim is also sometimes written Cuicunque aliquid conceditur, conceditur etiam et idsine quo res ipsa non essepotuit (meaning “To whomever anything is granted, that also is granted without which the thing itself could not exist”).

Cuijurisdictio data est, ea quoque concessa esse videntur sine quibus junisdictio explicari non potest. To whom jurisdiction is given, those things also are considered to be granted without which the jurisdiction cannot be exercised. .That is, the grant of jurisdiction implies the grant of all powers necessary to its exercise.

Cuijus est donandi eidem et vendendi et concedendijus est. A person who has a right to give has also a right to sell and to grant.

Cuilibet in artesuapenito est credendum. Credence should be given to a person skilled in his art (that is, when speaking of matters connected with that art).

Cuilibet licet furl prose introducto renunciane. Anyone may waive or renounce the benefit of a principle or rule of law that exists only for his protection.

Cui licet quod majus non debet quad minus est non licere. A person who has authority to do the more important act ought not to be debarred from doing what is of less importance.

Cuipater estpopulus non habet iliepatrem. That person to whom the people is father has not a father.

Cui plus licet quarn par est plus vult quam licet. One to whom more is allowed than is just wants more than is allowed.

Cuique in sua arte credendurn est. Everyone is to be believed in his own area of expertise.

Cujus est commodurn, ejus debet esse incommodum. The person who has the advantage should also have the disadvantage.

Cujus est commodum, ejus est on us. The person who has the benefIt has also the burden.

Cujus est dare, ejus est disponere. The person who has a right to give has the right of disposition. • That is, the bestower of a gift has a right to regulate its disposal. Cujus est divisio, alterius est electio. When one of two parties has the division (of an estate), the other has the choice (of the shares). • In partition between coparceners, where the division is made by the eldest, the rule in English law is that she shall choose her share last.

Cujus est dominium, ejus estpericulum. The risk lies on the owner.

Cujus est instituere, ejus est abrogare. Whoever can institute can also abrogate.

Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad coelum. The person who owns the soil owns up to the sky. • One who owns the surface of the ground owns, or has an exclusive right to everything that is on or above it to an indefinite height.

Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad coelum et ad inferos. Whoever owns the soil owns everything up to the sky and down to the depths.

Cujusjuris (i.e., jurisdictionis) est principale, ejusdern juris erit accessorium. An accessory matter is subject to the same jurisdiction as its principal.

Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consulto dati donatio est. A thing given by mistake can be recovered; if given purposely, it is a gift. Dig. 50.17.53.

Cujusque rei potissima pars estprincipiunz. The principal part of everything is the beginning.

Culpa caret qui scit sed prohibere non potest. A person is free of blame who knows but cannot prevent.

Culpae poena par esto. Let the punishment be equal to the crime.

Culpa est imniiscerese rei adse non pertinenti. It is a fault for anyone to meddle in a matter not pertaining to him. Culpa lata dolo aequiparatur. Gross negligence is equivalent to fraud.

Culpa tenet (teneat) suos auctores. A fault binds (or should bind) its own authors.

Culpa velpoena ex equitate non intenditur. Blame or punishment does not proceed from equity.

Cum actiofuerit mere criminalis, instituipoterit ab initio criminaliter vel civiliter, When an action is purely criminal, it can be instituted from the beginning either criminally or civilly.

Curn adsunt testimonia rerum, quid opus est verbis? When the proofs of facts are present, what need is there of words?

Cum aliquid impeditur, propter unum, eo remoto, tollitur impedimentum. When anything is impeded by one single cause, if that be removed, the impediment is removed.

Cum aliquis renunciaverit societati, solvitur societas. When any partner has renounced the partnership, the partnership is dissolved.

Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum. One making a voluntary confession is to be dealt with more leniently. Curn de lucro duorum quaeritur melior est causa possidentis. When there is a question of gain between two people, the cause of the possessor is the better.

Cum duo intersepugnantia reperiunturin testamento, ultimum ratum est. When two clauses in a will are found to be contradictory, the last in order prevails.

Cum duo jura concurrunt in una persona, aequum est ac si essent in duobus. When two rights meet in one person, it is the same as if they were in two persons.

Cum in corpore dissentitur, apparet nullarn esse acceptionem. When there is a disagreement in the substance, there is clearly no acceptance.

Cum in testamento ambigue aut etiam perperam scripturn, est benigne interpretari, etsecundum id quod credible estcogitatum credendurn est. When an ambiguous or even an erroneous expression occurs in a will, it should be construed liberally, and in accordance with the testator’s probable meaning.

Cum legitimae nuptiaefactae sunt, patrem liberi sequuntur. Children born under a legitimate marriage follow the condition of the father.

Curn licetfugere, ne quaere litem. Do not seek a lawsuit, if you can avoid it.

Curn par delictu,n est duorum, semper oneraturpetitor, et melior habeturpossessoris causa. Where two parties are equally at fault, the claimant always is at the disadvantage, and the party in possession has the better cause.

Cum quod ago non valet ut ago, valeat quantum valerepotest. When that which I do is of no effect as I do it, let it have as much effect as it can (that is, in some other way).

Curatus non ha bet titulurn. A curate has no title (to tithes). Curia cancellariae offi cina justitiae. The court of chancery is the workshop of justice.

Curia ecciesiastica locurn non habet super us quaejuris sunt communis. An ecclesiastical court has no jurisdiction over matters of common law.

Curia novitjura. The court knows the laws.

Curia parliamenti suispropriis legi bus subsist it. The court of parliament is governed by its own laws.

Curiosa et captiosa interpretatio in lege repro batur. An overnice and captious interpretation in the law is rejected.

Currit tempus contra desides et sul juris contemptores. Time runs against the indolent and those who are not mindful of their rights.

Cursus curiae est lex curiae. The practice of the court is the law of the court.

Custorne serra prise stricte. Custom shall be construed strictly.

Custos corporis cujusque infantis haereditas nequeat pervenire. Let each child have a guardian to whom the inheritance cannot devolve.

Custos statum haeredis in custodia existentis melio rem, non deteriorem, facerepotest. A guardian can make the estate of an heir living under his guardianship better, not worse.