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NEW EDUCATION POLICY 2020- WHAT ARE THE IMPORTANT CHANGES AND CHALLENGES?









Published by: HARDIK VERMA


INTRODUCTION[1]

Education policy lays emphasis on enhancing every person's creative ability. It depends on the rule that instruction should not only create psychological limits - both the 'fundamental limits' of education and numeracy and intellectual limits of 'higher demand,' such as basic reasoning and critical thinking - but also social, moral, and passionate limits and manners.


The new education policy 2020 will provide all students with a strong emphasis on traditionally diminished, disabled, and underrepresented events, irrespective of their place of residence, quality training structure. Education is an outstanding leveler and is the best instrument for achieving monetary and social portability, consideration, and equity. Activities must be set up to ensure that all the understudies of such meetings, despite innate snacks, have different chances of entering and exceeding expectations in the educational framework. Both elements must be combined considering the nation's local and worldwide needs and considering and giving due consideration to their rich variety and culture. The impartation of knowledge on India and its fluctuating financial, social, and mechanical needs, its incomparable customs of imagination, language, and intelligence, and its solid morals in India 's youth are seen as central to motivations behind national pride, fearlessness, self-awareness, cooperation, and unity.


HISTORY[2]

Since the nation's autonomy in 1947, the Indian government has supported a variety of projects in both provincial and urban India to address the issues of lack of education. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, India's first education minister, imagined solid central government command over nation-wide training, with a uniform instructive framework. The government of the Union formed the University Education Commission (1948–1949), the Secondary Education Commission (1952–1953), the College Grants Commission, and the Kothari Commission (1964–66) to develop recommendations for modernizing the training system for India. The Resolution on Science Policy was issued by the administration of the First Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. For example, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Nehru government sponsored the development of top-notch logical instruction foundations. In 1961, the government of the Union set up the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) as a self-governing body that would promote the preparation and implementation of instruction strategies both by the Union and state governments.

Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)[3]

On 14 July 1964, under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari, the Indian Education Commission, famously known as the Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) was established by the Indian administration. The Kothari Education Commission's (1964-66) purpose was to look at the modified sections of India's instruction system.

The commission was aided by experts from nations such as the United Kingdom, the United States, the USSR, and UNESCO. On 29 June 1966, the commission published the report on the system for Indian instruction. The recommendations of the improvement in preparation for the Kothari commission became a part of the national instruction system in 1968.

Provision of Free and Compulsory Education

The improvements to the guidance of the Kothari Commission recommended for the DPSP 's early satisfaction according to Article 45 of the Indian Constitution[4], which agreed to offer free and compulsory training to young people aged between 6 and 14. It expected to expand enlistment in schools to reach the alluring goal of free and compulsory training.


Remuneration and Conditions of Work of Teachers

Changes in the instruction of the Kothari commission considered the importance of the educators' job in achieving the nation's training system. Therefore, the commission suggested sufficient and good conditions of assistance for the teachers in addition to adequate skills and obligations.


· The Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) prescribed instructors for the scholarly opportunity to allow them to distribute free investigations and explorations. This was intended that educators would have the ability to address different national and global issues.


Recommendation of commission to Reduce Regional Imbalance in Educational Facilities

The Kothari Commission proposed that instructive offices should be built in rural and backward areas. The commission suggested appropriating a framework for Common Schools in India. It proposed that appropriate focus should be placed on educating young women to foster social justice and social change. Uncommon efforts to improve training among reverse classes and ancestral individuals were to be made. These also provided provisions for the employment of young people with physical and mental disabilities.


Recommendation of Kothari commission on Science Education

The commission recommended the enhancement and acceleration of science training and exam in India. Science and discovery for the advancement of the national economy and society ought to be furthered. For the initial 10 years of academic training, it suggested making science and mathematics a fundamental piece of instruction. It suggested for each grade school to arrange examples, models, and diagrams about logical instruction. The higher elementary schools were to have a cum-address room for the laboratory.


Kothari Commission Recommendations for Agricultural and Industrial Education

It suggested the advancement of one farming college in each state in any event. The system of practical training in industries in companies was to be made a piece of training to advance advanced instruction. The commission perceived the need for a continuous survey of the nation's agricultural, mechanical, and skilled labor prerequisites.

Kothari Commission Recommendations on Mass Education

The commission perceived the value of mass education for the best possible work of voting-based organizations and production advancement in horticulture, business, and so on. It proposed instructors 'and understudies' association organizing and promoting skill fights within the social and national assistance programs.

Kothari Commission Recommendations on the Educational Structure in India

All over the country, the board of trustees highlighted the advantages of a standardized educational system. 10 + 2 + 3 was intended to be an example of an instructive nation structure.


The Commission stressed the need to increase education spending to achieve a level of 6 percent of national education income expenditure. The requirement for coordination between the states and the focal government was likewise important for the advancement of instruction.

  • 1968

In 1968, in light of the Kothari Commission's report and recommendations (1964–1966), Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's administration announced the key National Education Strategy, which demanded an "extreme reconstruction" and suggested equivalent instructive open doors to accomplish national combination and more noteworthy social and financial turn of events. The plan called for compulsory education to be fulfilled for all young people up to the age of 14, as defined by the Indian Constitution and educators' special training and ability. The solution included a focus on studying local dialects, plotting the "three language equation" to be implemented in optional training - the guidance of the English language, the official language of the state where the school was based, and Hindi. Language teaching was important in reducing the distance between the intellectuals and the majority. Given the fact that the option to accept Hindi as a national language was questionable, the solution demanded the continuous use and learning of Hindi to advance a standard language for all Indians.[5] The policy also boosted the education of the old Sanskrit language, which was seen as a fundamental piece of the way of life and heritage of India. The 1968 NPE called for expenditure on instruction to rise to six percent of national salary.


  • 1986

In 1986, Rajiv Gandhi 's government brought out a new National Policy on Education. The new approach called for "unique accentuation on aberration evacuation and adjustment of instructive chance," particularly for Indian ladies, Scheduled Tribes (ST), and the Scheduled Caste (SC) community of citizens. To achieve such a social blend, the plan called for growing grants, increasing instruction, enrolling more SC teachers, enabling needy families to regularly send their young people to college, promoting new organizations, and offering housing and administrative services.[6] Throughout primary education, the NPE needed a "younger-focused approach," which pushed the "Blackboard Event" to strengthen elementary schools around the country. The strategy extended the framework of the open college with the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which was made in 1985. Also, because of Mahatma Gandhi's way of thinking, the plan mandated the development of the "provincial college" model to advance monetary and social change at the grassroots level in country India.[7] The training strategy for 1986 was predicted to burn by 6 percent of GDP on instruction.

  • 1992

The National Education Policy of 1986 was revised in 1992 by the P.V. Government of Narasimha Rao.[8] Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh received another settlement in 2005, based on his United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government's 'Basic Minimum Programme.[9] According to the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 Program of Action (PoA) 1992 imagined guiding reason for admission to expert and specialized projects within the nation from a traditional selection test on all India. A Three – Exam System (JEE and AIEEE at the National Level and State Level Engineering Entrance Examinations (SLEEE) for State Level Institutions – with an alternative to entering AIEEE) has been developed for admission to the Engineering and Architecture / Planning Programmes by the Government of India Vide Resolution of 18 October 2001. This deals with changing criteria for approval in these ventures and helps in upholding the values of experts. This also covers and reduces the physical, mental, and budgetary weight of undergraduates and their people due to a variety of placement tests.

Important changes in the new policy 2020[10]

· Framework 5 + 3 + 3 + 4: The 10 + 2 school curriculum structure should be replaced by a 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 curriculum structure compared to age 3-8, 8-11, 11-14 and 14-18. It will include 12 years of tutoring and three years of pre-tutoring at Anganwadi.

· Schooling from 3 years: According to the Current Education Program young people should be a piece of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) from the age of 3. This will be communicated through

A) The Anganwadis are independent

B) Anganwadis who are co-located with elementary schools

C) Pre-graduate schools/areas covered, at any point, 5 to 6 years of age, co-located with established primary schools; and d) separate pre-schools – all of which will require workers/educators uniquely prepared for ECCE's educational system and teaching process.


· Promoting libraries: A National Book Promotion Policy will be detailed, and broad activities will be embraced to ensure that books are accessible, open quality, and readership across geologies, dialects, levels, and classes.


· Common school affirmation entrance test: The National Testing Agency ( NTA) will conduct selection tests for admissions to colleges across the nation. As of now, the NTA is leading the all-India placement design competition-JEE Main, NEET, UGC NET, and others. The selection test for admission to colleges and schools to be directed by the NTA will be discretionary according to the NEP 2020.


· Multidisciplinary approach - It also discusses expelling the arrangement of associated schools for more than 15 years through a reviewed self-sufficiency arrangement. To remove different forms of college characteristics, the NEP is trying to eradicate the modified classifications that now exist - 'estimated to be college,' 'affiliated college,' 'associated college', 'unitary college' - each with their guidelines.


· Academic Bank of Credit: This should be built to carefully substitute academic credits obtained from various HEIs so that they can be transferred and reviewed to a definite degree received. The scholastic loan placed in computerized storage would look like a bank loan in which an undergraduate will have the option of continuing education after a break as decided by advanced education commission later.


· The program ensures that 6 percent of GDP is spent on instruction. According to the 2018-19 National Economic Survey, India burned on instruction by 3 percent of its GDP. Rs 99,300 crore was allocated to the training division, an increase of 4.6 percent from the financial plan of the previous year, according to Budget 2020.



MAJOR CHALLENGES[11]

· An aggressive target of 6 percent of GDP open spending has been set. Assembling money-related assets would be a major challenge provided the low to-GDP ratio of expenditures and controversial arguments on the national human services exchange, national security, and other key components.

· The obsession of the government with the charge guideline is an important test; it looks bad as the majority of colleges in India are supported openly, which implies that instruction is essentially financed in these foundations, with expenses being in any case overpowered. Forestalling private colleges and state-funded colleges from charging the expenses they require for development designs and continuing quality is by no means the course to ensure excellent advanced education.

· Not Visionary - freedom of speech and expression is the cornerstone of our majority rule and the person who has the responsibility to advise the general public is never permitted to reflect his right to provide information, to outline the scheme, to try new advances to make learning more efficient and to lift the training structure for our nation 's glorious eventual destiny with a variety of possibilities. How he will be able to communicate concerns about the training of children and how he will upgrade information for the advancement of society is not clear in the strategy that has been adopted late.

· There's no notice in the entire arrangement record of planned ranks, booked clans, and others in reverse classes. There is no dialogue about these marginalized populations that include more than half the population of the country.

· The government needs to fill 12 lakh teachers' opportunities, only 10 percent of the nation's government schools approach PCs and only 4 percent organize accessibility.

· The pacing of the Corona Pandemic NEP 2020 as every instructive base is shut down is faulty. More so because almost the entire academic world has no meeting, no discussion, and no considerations apart from the subsidiaries of BJP.

· This strategy recognizes that most schools are in urban areas with telephone and tabs approaching research, ignoring the fact that 28% of the country's adults have mobile phones.



Footnotes:

[1] https://www.mhrd.gov.in/nep-new

[2]www.epgp.inflibnet.ac.in/epgpdata/uploads/epgp_content/S000033SO/P000300/M013097/ET/145258955205ET.pdf [3] Main Recommendations of "Education Commission" (Kothari Commission) (1964-1966) [4] ARTICLE 45 OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION, https://www.mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/amend86.pdf [5] National Informatics Centre" (PDF). National Informatics Centre: 38–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2009 [6] National Education Policy 1986". National Informatics Centre. pp. 38–45. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2009. [7] National Education Policy 1986". National Informatics Centre. pp. 38–45. Retrieved 12 July 2009 [8] National Policy on Education, 1986 (As modified in 1992)" (PDF). HRD Ministry. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2011 [9] AIEEE". HRD Ministry. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012. [10] New Education Policy 2020 Highlights: School and higher education to see major changes [11] https://www.drishtiias.com/daily-updates/daily-news-editorials/national-education-policy-nep-2020

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